Risk-associated health disorders occuring in junior schoolchildren who attend schools with higher stress and intensity of educational process
N.V. Zaitseva1,2, O.Yu. Ustinova1,2, K.P. Luzhetskiy1,2, O.A. Maklakova1,2, M.A. Zemlyanova1,2, O.V. Dolgikh1,2, S.V. Kleyn1,2, N.V. Nikiforova1
1 Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies, 82 Monastyrskaya Str., Perm, 614045, Russian Federation
2 Perm State National Research University, 15 Bukireva Str., Perm, 614990, Russian Federation
We performed comparative sanitary-hygienic assessment of regime, stress and intensity of educational process in different educational establishments, a comprehensive secondary school and an innovative educational establishment - lyceum.
We detected that studying regime tended to be tight, classes were longer and more intense than in an ordinary school, and educational process involved considerable intellectual, sensory and emotional loads for children; such loads reached "1st category intense" level. Schoolchildren attending lyceums are also busy with additional educational programs and it significantly increases length of total educational load on them. By the end of a school year 20% of lyceum pupils suffer from sympathoadrenal system overstress and it doesn't only determine emotional tonus level in children but also leads to disorders in concentration and decision-making speed, lower reading speed and articulation, slower motor reactions. 15% of lyceum pupils have higher activity of autonomous nervous system and lower adaptation of cardiovascular system to psycho emotional and physical loads. Lyceum pupils also run 2.5 times higher risk of chronic nervous system diseases evolvement than school children attending ordinary schools. Autonomous nervous system disorders, posture disorders and nutrition disorders are predominant nosologic pathology forms in lyceum pupils as they occur in them 1.6-2.9 times more frequent than in schoolchildren of the same age who attend an ordinary comprehensive school. We detected direct correlation between higher intellectual and emotional components of educational process, and total educational intensity as well, and frequency of autonomous system disorders and musculoskeletal system diseases in pupils.
- Aleksandrova I.E., Stepanova M.I. Novaya shkala trudnosti uchebnykh predmetov kak instrument gigienicheskoi reglamentatsii shkol'nykh nagruzok [A new scale of school subject difficulty as a tool for hygienic regulation of school loads]. Zdorov'e naseleniya i sreda obitaniya, 2003, no. 9, pp. 21–25 (in Russian).
- Baranov A.A., Kuchma R.V., Skoblina N.A. Fizicheskoe razvitie detei i podrostkov na rubezhe tysyache-letii: monografiya [Physical growth and development of children and teenagers on the brink of millenniums: monograph]. Moscow, Izdatel' Nauchnyi tsentr zdorov'ya detei RAMN Publ., 2008, 216 p. (in Russian).
- Bezrukikh M.M., Efimova S.P., Khromova S.K. Osobennosti razvitiya poznavatel'nykh funktsii u uchashchikhsya 9-10 let, imeyushchikh trudnosti pis'ma [Peculiarities of cognitive functions development in schoolchildren aged 9-10 having difficulty with writing]. Obrazovanie i vospitanie detei i podrostkov: gigieniches-kie problemy: materialy Vseross. konf.[ Education and upbringing of children and teenagers: hygienic issues: Materials of all-Russia conference.]. Moscow, NO NTsZD RAMN Publ., 2002, pp.55–56 (in Russian).
- Bokareva N.A., Milushkina O.Yu., Pivovarov Yu.P., Skoblina N.A. Vliyanie obrazovatel'nogo protsessa na fizicheskoe razvitie shkol'nikov [The influence of educational process on the physical development of school-children]. Zdorov'e naseleniya i sreda obitaniya, 2015, no. 11, pp. 17–19 (in Russian).
- Milushkina O.Yu., Bokareva N.A., Skoblina N.A., Fedotov D.M., Degteva G.N. Vliyanie rasshirennogo dvigatel'nogo rezhima na fizicheskoe razvitie shkol'nikov [Influence exerted by enhanced motor regime on schoolchildren's physical development]. Fizicheskaya kul'tura: vospitanie, obrazovanie, trenirovka, 2012, no. 6, pp. 50–52 (in Russian).
- Stepanova M.I., Kuindzhi N.N., Il'in A.G., Sazanyuk Z.I., Rapoport I.K., Zvezdina I.V., Polenova M.A. Gigieni¬cheskie problemy reformirovaniya shkol'nogo obrazovaniya. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2000, no. 1, pp.40–44 (in Russian).
- Ermakov A.R., Grishina O.V., Treushnikov R.V. O prichinakh ukhudsheniya sostoyaniya obrazovaniya v Rossii – «vklad» obuchaemykh [On the causes of the deterioration of education in russia – contribution of learn-ers]. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya, 2015, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 372 (in Russian).
- Zorina I.G. Sotsial'no-gigienicheskii monitoring faktorov sredy obitaniya i sostoyaniya zdorov'ya kak metod opredeleniya prioritetov profilaktiki v gigiene obucheniya detei [The social and hygienic monitoring of envi-ronmental factors and health status as a method of prioritizing preventative health education for school children]. Zdorov'e naseleniya i sreda obitaniya, 2013, no. 1, pp. 17–18 (in Russian).
- Kamenkova N.G., Afonova M.N., Sirotkina Yu.Yu. Analiz vozmozhnykh podkhodov k sberezheniyu zdorov'ya mladshikh shkol'nikov v protsesse obucheniya v ramkakh zdorov'e-sberegayushchei deyatel'nosti [Ana-lyzing possible approaches to preservation of junior schoolchildren's health during educational processes within the frameworks of health-preserving activities]. Gertsenovskie chteniya. Nachal'noe obrazovanie, 2011, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 181–187 (in Russian).
- Kuchma V.R., Sukhareva L.M., Stepanova M.I. Gigienicheskie problemy shkol'nykh innovatsii: mono-grafiya [Hygienic issues of school innovations: monograph]. Moscow, Nauchnyi tsentr zdorov'ya detei RAMN Publ., 2009, 240 p. (in Russian).
- Makunina O.A., Yakubovskaya I.A. Struktura i dinamika sostoyaniya zdorov'ya shkol'nikov 7-17 let [Structure and dynamics of the health of schoolchildren 7–17 years]. Elektronnyi nauchno-obrazovatel'nyi vestnik: zdorov'e i obrazovanie v 21 veke, 2015, vol.17, no. 2, pp. 29–31(in Russian).
- Mashdieva M.S. Gigienicheskaya otsenka uslovii obucheniya po trekh- i chetyrekhletnim programmam nachal'nogo obrazovaniya v srednei shkole: dis. . kand. med. nauk [Hygienic assessment of training conditions as per 3- and 4-year-long elementary school programs in a secondary school: Thesis. … candidate of medical sciences]. Rostov-na-Donu, 2003, 181 p. (in Russian).
- Makarova V.I., Degteva G.N., Afanasenkova N.V., Kudrya L.I. Podkhody k sokhraneniyu zdorov'ya detei v usloviyakh intensifikatsii obrazovatel'nogo protsessa [Approaches to children's health preservations at intensified educational process]. Rossiiskii pediatricheskii zhurnal, 2000, no. 3, pp. 34–39 (in Russian).
- SanPiN 18.104.22.16821-10. Sanitarno-epidemiologicheskie trebovaniya k usloviyam i organizatsii obucheniya v obshcheobrazovatel'nykh uchrezhdeniyakh. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/902256369 (18.10.2016) (in Russian).
- Kuchma R.V., Skoblina N.A., Milushkina O.Yu., Bokareva N.A. Sravnitel'nyi retrospektivnyi analiz fizicheskogo i biologicheskogo razvitiya shkol'nikov Moskvy [Comparative analysis of physical and biological development of schoolchildren in Moscow]. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2012, no. 4, pp. 47–52 (in Russian).
- Stepanova M.I. Interaktivnaya doska: bezopasnoe ispol'zovanie [Interactive whiteboard: the safe use]. Shkol'nye tekhnologii, 2011, no. 2, pp. 128–131(in Russian).
- Stepanova M.I. O gigienicheskoi ekspertize obrazovatel'nykh programm i tekhnologii [On hygienic ex-amination of educational programs and technologies]. Obrazovanie i vospitanie detei i podrostkov: gigienicheskie problemy: materialy Vseross. konf.[ Education and upbringing of children and teenagers: hygienic issues: Mate-rials of all-Russia conference.]. Moscow, NO NTsZD RAMN Publ., 2002, pp. 329–331(in Russian).
- Sukharev A.G., Shelonina O.A., Tsyrenova N.M. O gigienicheskoi ekspertize tekhnologii obucheniya shkol'nikov [On hygienic examination of school education technologie]. Obrazovanie i vospitanie detei i podrostkov: gigienicheskie problemy: materialy Vseross. konf.[ Education and upbringing of children and teenagers: hygienic issues: Materials of all-Russia conference..]. Moscow, NO NTsZD RAMN Publ., 2002, pp. 363–364 (in Russian).
- Sukhareva L.M., Rappoport I.K., Polenova M.A. Zabolevaemost' i umstvennaya rabotosposobnost' moskovskikh shkol'nikov [Morbidity rate and mental capacity of moscow schoolchildren (longitudinal study)]. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2014, no. 3, pp. 64–67 (in Russian).
- Tepper E.A., Taranushenko T.E. Analiz zdorov'ya shkol'nikov, nachavshikh obuchenie v raznom vozraste [The analysis of health conditions of schoolchildren started the education process in various age]. Zdravookhranenie Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 2013, no. 3, pp. 42–50 (in Russian).
- Faustov A.S., Furaeva O.A. Sravnitel'naya gigienicheskaya otsenka obucheniya uchashchikhsya v inno-va¬tsion¬nykh i massovykh obshcheobrazovatel'nykh shkolakh [Comparative hygienic assessment of educational process in innovative schools and mass comprehensive secondary schools]. Obrazovanie i vospitanie detei i podrostkov: gigienicheskie problemy: materialy Vseross. konf.[ Education and upbringing of children and teenagers: hygienic issues: Materials of all-Russia conference.]. Moscow, NO NTsZD RAMN Publ., 2002, pp. 366–367 (in Russian).
- FR-ROShUMZ-16-2015. Gigienicheskaya otsenka napryazhennosti uchebnoi deyatel'nosti obuchayush-chikhsya: Federal'nye Rekomendatsii po okazaniyu meditsinskoi pomoshchi obuchayushchimsya [FR- ROShUMZ -16-2015. Hygienic assessment of educational stress for schoolchildren: Federal Recommendations on providing medical care for pupils]. Moscow, 2015, 18 p. (in Russian).
- Furaeva O.A., Stepkina N.A. Gigienicheskie aspekty innovatsionnykh tekhnologii obucheniya v obshcheobrazovatel'noi shkole [Hygienic aspects of innovative education technologies in a comprehensive secondary school]. Gigienicheskaya nauka i praktika na rubezhe XXI veka: materialy IX Vseross. s"ezda gigien, i sanit. vrachei [Hygienic theory ads practice on the brink of XXI century: materials of IX all-Russia congress of hygienic and sanitary physicians]. Moscow, 2001, vol. 2, pp. 511–514 (in Russian).
- Endokrinologiya: natsional'noe rukovodstvo [Endocrinology. National guidance]. In: I.I. Dedova, G.A. Mel'nichenko, eds., 2-e izd., pererab. i dop. Moscow, GEOTAR-Media Publ., 2016, 1112 p. (in Russian).