The employment of high school pupils and vocational school students: medical and social aspects, health risks, approaches to optimization
V.Yu. Ivanov, E.I. Shubochkina, E.M. Ibragimova
FSBI “Scientific Center of Children's Health” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Building 5, house 5, Maly Kazenny per., Moscow, 105064, Russian Federation
The aim of this study is to investigate the employment characteristics and its impact on lifestyle and health of adolescents as well as to develop preventive recommendations. The objects of the study are the employment, life quality and health of adolescents working in their spare time.
Materials and methods: the surveys were conducted among 575 persons at the age from fourteen till eighteen (senior pupils – 331 people, students of vocational schools – 244 people) in Moscow. The life quality was assessed using the standardized questionnaire MOS SF-36.
Results. A number of teens working in free time from their study is 37.7 %. The predominance of informal employment was revealed. The structure of employment of senior pupils and vocational school students is represented. In the group of the working adolescents there is a higher prevalence of the behavioral factors of risk (smoking, drinking of alcoholic beverages and addiction to drugs). The effect of the employment of high school pupils on health is shown, health risks due to employment are determined: increase in complaints of headaches and increase in the group of the “frequently ill”. The most evident negative influence of the factor of employment is established in the group of vocational school students: the high risk of back pain, pain in the legs (in healthy individuals), undifferentiated complaints, poor physical form, deterioration of quality of life (in individuals with chronic pathology). In secondary schools and vocational schools there is the need to implement educational programs on health protection of adolescent workers, raise the level of preparedness to enter the labour market, the choice of the work type taking into account health status.
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