Work environment of the automotive industry as a risk factor of diseases of the circulatory system among workers
E.T. Valeeva1,2, R.R. Galimova1,2, A.A. Distanova1, I.F. Suleymanova1, D.M. Galiullina1, N.B. Boyarinova1, L.Kh. Salavatova1, S.M. Isaeva1
1Ufa Research Institute of Occupational Medicine and Human Ecology, 94 Stepana Kuvykina Str., Ufa, 450106, Russian Federation
2Bashkir State Medical University, 3 Lenina Str., Ufa, 450077, Russian Federation
This study has shown that working conditions of basic occupational groups in the automotive industry involve combined exposure to several harmful occupational factors. Major harmful occupational factors include intense noise, vibration, work hardness and chemical levels; their intensity varies between permissible levels (the hazard category is 2.0) and harmful ones (the hazard category 3.1–3.2, harmful working conditions with hazard levels 1 or 2). This may induce occurrence or exacerbation of basic non-communicable diseases such as diseases of the circulatory system (CSDs), occupational and work-related diseases.
CSDs were diagnosed in 37.7 % of workers employed at automotive productions. The most frequent diseases include hypertension (EH) that accounted for 28.2 %; cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs), 6.5 %; ischemic heart disease (IHD), 3.6 %. CSDs developed at an early age in workers exposed to harmful occupational factors belonging to the hazard category 3.1–3.2; these diseases became more frequent as work records got longer, and were more frequently exacerbated with acute cardiovascular conditions. We assessed the total cardiovascular risk using the SCORE scale and established that shares of people with high and very high cardiovascular risks were higher among painters, laboratory assistants responsible for chemical analysis, and repairmen. The attributive risk of new cardiovascular diseases ranged between 9.6 (turners) and 42.6 (repairmen) cases.
The highest occupational CSDs causation was identified for repairmen and mechanics at mechanical assembly production; average causation was established for stampers, painters, laboratory assistants dealing with chemical analysis, crane operators, and turners.
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