Mortality among adults in the arctic macro-region: Dynamics, structure and features
B.А. Revich1, Т.L. Khar'kova1,2, Е.А. Kvasha2
1Institute of Economic Forecasting of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 47 Nakhimovskii Ave., Moscow, 117418, Russian Federation
2The Institute of Demography of National Research University ‘Higher School of Economics’, 3 Bolshoi Trekhsvyatitelskii lane, Moscow, 109028, Russian Federation
An expected increase in the number of workplaces in the Arctic macro-region will require a lot of available local workforce. However, currently the working age population is declining markedly there. Between 2014 and 2020, the population decreased everywhere, except the Yamal Nenets Autonomous Area; the decrease was the most apparent in the Arkhangelsk region, Murmansk region, and the Komi Republic.
Fluctuations in the share of the working age population in the Arkhangelsk region and the Nenets Autonomous Area practically have the same dynamic as in the country as a whole (the decline equals 2–3 %). The greatest declines (5–7 %) were observed in the Magadan region, Chukotka, the Murmansk region and the Komi Republic.
Mortality rates in the Arctic macro-region tend to be higher than the national average rate due to uncomfortable Arctic climate, long distances between the settlements and basic healthcare facilities, and some other reasons. A current decline in mortality among the working age population has not reached its national average level yet. The major causes of elevated mortality in the Arctic macro-region include ischemic heart disease (in Chukotka, the Arkhangelsk region and the Murmansk region); stroke (in Karelia and the Komi Republic); external causes including accidental alcohol poisoning (in Karelia, the Komi Republic, and the Arkhangelsk region).
To protect health of the working age population, it is necessary to develop and implement regional programs aimed at reducing mortality due to the major causes, which differ from one region to another. These programs should consider the experience gained in the other Arctic regions. It is also necessary to implement more effective healthcare management systems. This includes development of specific models for various population groups with specific working conditions and lifestyle; development of private-public partnerships; making healthcare more available.
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