Risks of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2 for medical personnel in a large industrial city during the pandemic: comparative assessment
S.S. Smirnova1,2, I.А. Egorov1, N.N. Zhuikov1, L.G. Vyatkina3, А.N. Kharitonov3, А.V. Semenov1,4, О.V. Morova2,5
1Yekaterinburg Research Institute of Viral Infections, State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector", Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being, 23 Letnyaya Str., Ekaterinburg, 620030, Russian Federation
2Ural State Medical University, 3 Repina Str., Ekaterinburg, 620028, Russian Federation
3The Center for Public Health and Medical Prevention, 78A/2 8 Marta Str., Ekaterinburg, 620144, Russian Federation
4Institute of Natural Sciences and Mathematics of the Ural Federal University named after the First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, 19 Mira Str., Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russian Federation
5The Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in Sverdlovsk Region, 3 Otdelnii lane, Ekaterinburg, 620078, Russian Federation
The COVID-19 pandemic has produced its effects on functioning of all the state institutions, the public healthcare system being a peculiar one among them. Medical personnel have become an unprotected population group that was actively involved into the epidemic process. Results produced by several studies indicate that relative risks to become infected with COVID-19 are by up to 11.6 times higher for medical personnel than in population at large. A share of medical personnel among patients with COVID-19 varies in different countries, from 4.2 % in China to 17.8 % in the USA. According to official statistics, in 2020 a share of medical personnel who became infected with COVID-19 in in-hospital foci amounted to 68.6 % in the RF regions located in the Urals and Siberian Federal Districts.
High epidemic potential of the virus and intensive mass contacts between medical personnel and their patients make for rapid SARS-CoV-2 spread and infection among them. It is vital to examine all the range of risk factors that cause SARS-CoV-2 infection among medical personnel.
The present study involved using “The map of epidemiological investigation focused on the incidence of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in medical personnel”. The map was located on Google Cloud Platform. Overall, 613 medical workers from different medical organizations took part in the research. We applied sociological, epidemiological and statistical research techniques.
We established that work in an infectious diseases hospital increased a relative risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 1.8 times (RR = 1.78; 95 % CI [1.65–1.93]). The total risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was insignificant for workers employed at a medical organization that provided scheduled medical assistance to population (RR = 1.02; 95 % CI [1.00–1.04]). However, certain factors created elevated risks of infection. Any contacts with COVID-19 patients who were close relatives, friends or neighbors were established to be significant (RR = 1.13; 95 % CI [1.04–1.228]).
The research results should be used when organizing work procedures and anti-epidemic activities in infectious diseases hospitals and medical organizations providing scheduled assistance to population. The focus should be on providing medical personnel with personal protective equipment as well as on calculating relevant duration of a work shift relying on the risk-based approach.
- Gomez-Ochoa S.A., Franco O.H., Rojas L.Z., Raguindin P.F., Roa-Díaz Z.M., Wyssmann B.M., Romero Guevara S.L., Echeverría L.E. [et al.]. COVID-19 in Health-Care Workers: A Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prevalence, Risk Factors, Clinical Characteristics, and Outcomes. Am. J. Epidemiol., 2021, vol. 190, no. 1, pp. 161–175. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwaa191
- Briko N.I., Kagramanyan I.N., Nikiforov V.V., Suranova T.G., Chernyavskaya O.Р., Polez-haeva N.A. Pandemic COVID-19. Prevention measures in the Russian Federation. Epidemiologiya i vaktsinoprofilaktika, 2020, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 4–12. DOI: 10.31631/2073-3046-2020-l9-2-4-12 (in Russian).
- Kutyrev V.V., Popova A.Yu., Smolensky V.Yu., Ezhlova E.B., Demina Yu.V., Safronov V.A., Karnaukhov I.G., Ivanova A.V., Shcherbakova S.A. Epidemiological peculiarities of new coronavirus infection (COVID-2019). Communication 2: Peculiarities of epidemic process development in conjunction with performed anti-epidemic measures around the world and in the Russian Federation. Problemy osobo opasnykh infektsii, 2020, no. 2, pp. 6–12. DOI: 10.21055/0370-1069-2020-2-6-12 (in Russian).
- Nguyen L.H., Drew D.A., Graham M.S., Joshi A.D., Guo C.-G., Ma W., Mehta R.S., Warner E.T. [et al.]. Risk of COVID-19 among front-line health-care workers and the general community: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Public Health, 2020, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. e475–e483. DOI: 10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30164-X
- Wei J.-T., Liu Z.-D., Fan Z.-W., Zhao L., Cao W.-C. Epidemiology of and Risk Factors for COVID-19 Infection among Health Care Workers: A Multi-Centre Comparative Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2020, vol. 17, no. 19, pp. 7149. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17197149
- Hossain A., Nasrullah S.M., Tasnim Z., Hasan M.K., Hasan M.M. Seroprevalence of
SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies among health care workers prior to vaccine administration in Europe, the USA and East Asia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. EClinicalMedicine, 2021, vol. 33, pp. 100770. DOI: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100770
- Godderis L., Boone A., Bakusic J. COVID-19: a new work-related disease threatening healthcare workers. Occup. Med. (Lond.), 2020, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 315–316. DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqaa056
- Celebi G., Piskin N., Celik Beklevic A., Altunay Y., Salcı Keles A., Tuz M.A., Altınsoy B., Haciseyitoglu D. Specific risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission among health care workers in a university hospital. Am. J. Infect. Control, 2020, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1225–1230. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2020.07.039
- Grubaugh N.D., Ladner J.T., Lemey P., Pybus O.G., Rambaut A., Holmes E.C., Andersen K.G. Tracking virus outbreaks in the twenty-first century. Nat. Microbiol., 2019, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 10–19. DOI: 10.1038/s41564-018-0296-2
- Poletti P., Tirani M., Cereda D., Guzzetta G., Trentini F., Marziano V., Toso C., Piatti A. [et al.]. Seroprevalence of and Risk Factors Associated With SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Health Care Workers During the Early COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy. JAMA Netw. Open, 2021, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. e2115699. DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.15699
- Medvedev D.A. Security cooperation during the novel coronavirus pandemic. Rossiya v global'noi politike, 2020, vol. 18, no. 4 (104), pp. 8–21 (in Russian).
- Medvedev D. Shest' urokov odnoi pandemii [Six lessons from one pandemic]. Rossiiskaya gazeta. Available at: https://rg.ru/2021/11/01/dmitrij-medvedev-o-proshlom-nastoiashchem-i-bud... (01.03.2022) (in Russian).
- Platonova T.A., Golubkova A.A., Tutelyan A.V., Smirnova S.S. The incidence of COVID-19 medical workers. The issues of biosafety and occupational risk factors. Epidemiologiya i Vaktsinoprofilaktika, 2021, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 4–11. DOI: 10.31631/2073-3046-2021-20-2-4-11 (in Russian).
- Lidstrom A.K., Sund F., Albinsson B., Lindback J., Westman G. Work at inpatient care units is associated with an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection; a cross-sectional study of 8679 healthcare workers in Sweden. Ups. J. Med. Sci., 2020, vol. 125, no. 4, pp. 305–310. DOI: 10.1080/03009734.2020.1793039
- Iversen K., Bundgaard H., Hasselbalch R.B., Kristensen J.H., Nielsen P.B., Pries-Heje M., Knudsen A.D., Christensen C.E. [et al.]. Risk of COVID-19 in health-care workers in Denmark: an observational cohort study. Lancet Infect. Dis., 2020, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1401–1408. DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30589-2
- Kutyrev V.V., Popova A.Yu., Smolensky V.Yu., Ezhlova E.B., Demina Yu.V., Safronov V.A., Karnaukhov I.G., Ivanova A.V., Shcherbakova S.A. Epidemiological features of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19). Communication 1: modes of implementation of preventive and anti-epidemic measures. Problemy osobo opasnykh infektsii, 2020, no. 1, pp. 6–13. DOI: 10.21055/0370-1069-2020-1-6-13 (in Russian)
- Shields A., Faustini S.E., Perez-Toledo M., Jossi S., Aldera E., Allen J.D., Al-Taei S., Backhouse C. [et al.]. SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and asymptomatic viral carriage in healthcare workers: a cross-sectional study. Thorax, 2020, vol. 75, no. 12, pp. 1089–1094. DOI: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2020-215414
- Nienhaus A., Hod R. COVID-19 among Health Workers in Germany and Malaysia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2020, vol. 17, no. 13, pp. 4881. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17134881
- Gholami M., Fawad I., Shadan S., Rowaiee R., Ghanem H.A., Hassan Khamis A., Ho S.B. COVID-19 and healthcare workers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int. J. Infect. Dis., 2021, vol. 104, pp. 335–346. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2021.01.013
- Chou R., Dana T., Buckley D.I., Selph S., Fu R., Totten A.M. Epidemiology of and Risk Factors for Coronavirus Infection in Health Care Workers: A Living Rapid Review. Ann. Intern. Med., 2020, vol. 173, no. 2, pp. 120–136. DOI: 10.7326/M20-1632