Anthropometric measurements in newborn children of personnel employed at radiation-hazardous production as indicators used in monitoring over consequences of parental exposure to radiation
S.F. Sosnina, P.V. Okatenko, M.E. Sokolnikov
Southern Urals Biophysics Institute of FMBA of Russia, 19 Ozerskoe shosse, Ozersk, 456780, Russian Federation
Physical development of offspring can be an important criterion applied to assess effects produced by parental exposure. The cohort that includes workers employed at Mayak Production Association (PA), the first nuclear fuel cycle production facility in Russia, is a valuable information source for analyzing consequences of occupational exposure.
Our objective was to analyze somatometric parameters of newborn children of Mayak PA workers who were occupationally exposed to pre-conception external gamma-radiation.
We retrospectively analyzed anthropometric measurements of 13,880 newborn children, all born in 1949–1973; 9321 children were conceived by parents who were long-term occupationally exposed to radiation at Mayak PA. The analysis covered the core anthropometric elements including height, weight, head circumference, and chest circumference. Development proportionality was estimated by using Quetelet, Vervek – Vorontsov’s, and Erismann indexes. We estimated a correlation between anthropometric measurements and accumulated parental pre-conception external gamma radiation dose and calculated relative risk coefficients and odds ratio with 95 % confidence interval.
We established that parents were exposed to a wide range of external gamma radiation doses, up to 4075.6 mGy to the ovaries and 5653.1 mGy to the testicles. There was a weak correlation between newborns’ height and weight and parental exposure. We also detected a trend for a decrease in newborns’ body mass with increasing accumulated pre-conception dose of external gamma radiation to the ovaries and, conversely, for an increase in it with a growing dose to the testicles. We revealed a statistically significant increase in height and weight among children conceived and born by Mayak PA workers, namely, a greater share of children with high body mass at birth. Analysis of children’s somatotypes confirmed excessive values of proportionality indexes that showed height and weight measurements among children of exposed parents. Additional analysis of firstborns and children with proper duration of gestation produced the same results. Risk assessment indicated there was significant prevalence of children with high body mass among offspring of exposed people.
We also assessed physical development of Mayak PA workers’ newborns taking into account the latest data on long-term occupational exposure; this assessment is vital for epidemiological monitoring over health of children born by personnel employed at radiation-hazardous production facilities.
- UNSCEAR. Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. UNSCEAR 2013 Report. Volume II. Scientific annex B: Effects of radiation exposure of children. New York, 2013, 284 p.
- Tatsukawa Y., Cologne J.B., Hsu W.L., Yamada M., Ohishi W., Hida A., Furukawa K., Takahashi N. [et al.]. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study. J. Radiol. Prot., 2013, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 281–293. DOI: 10.1088/0952-4746/33/2/281
- ICRP Publication 103. The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. In: J. Valentin ed. Annals of the ICRP, Elsevier, 2007.
- Ozasa K., Cullings H.M., Ohishi W., Hida A., Grant E.J. Epidemiological studies of atomic bomb radiation at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Int. J. Radiat. Biol., 2019, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 879–891. DOI: 10.1080/09553002.2019.1569778
- Evtushenko N.N., Volosnikov D.K., Akleev A.V. Fizicheskoe razvitie detei pervogo goda zhizni, roditeli kotorykh podvergalis' khronicheskomu radiatsionnomu vozdeistviyu [Physical development of children during the first year of life whose parents were chronically exposed to radiation]. Pediatriya, 2010, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 52–57 (in Russian).
- Chen S., Yang Y., Qv Y., Zou Y., Zhu H., Gong F., Zou Y., Yang H. [et al.]. Paternal exposure to medical-related radiation associated with low birthweight infants: A large population-based, retrospective cohort study in rural China. Medicine (Baltimore), 2018, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. e9565. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000009565
- Andreassi M.G., Borghini A., Vecoli C., Piccaluga E., Guagliumi G., Del Greco M., Gaita F., Picano E. Reproductive outcomes and Y chromosome instability in radiation-exposed male workers in cardiac catheterization laboratory. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2020, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 361–368. DOI: 10.1002/em.22341
- Magnusson L.L., Bodin L., Wennborg H. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in offspring of fathers working in biomedical research laboratories. Am. J. Ind. Med., 2006, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 468–473. DOI: 10.1002/ajim.20317
- Herrmann T., Thiede G., Trott K.R., Voigtmann L. Offsprings of preconceptionally irradiated parents. Final report of a longitudinal study 1976–1994 and recommendations for patients' advisory. Strahlenther. Onkol., 2004, vol. 180, no. 1, pp. 21–30. DOI: 10.1007/s00066-004-1223-4 (in German).
- Sosnina S.F., Kabirova N.R., Okatenko P.V., Rogacheva S.A., Tsareva Yu.V., Gruzdeva E.A., Sokolnikov M.E. Ozyorsk Children’s Health register: development results, management guidelines, potential and prospects. Meditsina ekstremal'nykh situatsii, 2017, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 95–103 (in Russian).
- Napier B.A. The Mayak Worker Dosimetry System (MWDS-2013): an introduction to the documentation. Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry, 2017, vol. 176, no. 1–2, pp. 6–9.
- Grantz K.L., Hediger M.L., Liu D., Buck Louis G.M. Fetal growth standards: the NICHD fetal growth study approach in context with INTERGROWTH-21st and the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 2018, vol. 218, no. 2S, pp. S641–S655.e28. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.11.593
- Kildiyarova R.R. Assessing physical development of children with percentile diagrams. Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii, 2017, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 431–437. DOI: 10.15690/vsp.v16i5.1808 (in Russian).
- Chernaya N.L., Maskova G.S., Ganuzin V.M., Ermolina E.A. Comparative evaluation of postnatal growth of premature babies using different regulations and standards. Prakticheskaya meditsina, 2018, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 79–83 (in Russian).
- Pastukhova E.I., Shalaginov S.A., Akleev A.V. Chislo beremennostei i rodov u zhenshchin, podvergshikhsya deistviyu khronicheskogo ioniziruyushchego izlucheniya na reke Teche [The number of pregnancies and births in women exposed to chronic ionizing radiation on the Techa river]. Vestnik Chelyabinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2013, vol. 298, no. 7, pp. 82–84 (in Russian).
- Akleev A.V., Krestinina L.Yu., Varfolomeeva T.A., Ostroumova E.V., Pushkarev S.A., Shalagi¬nov S.A., Khudyakova O.I., Veremeeva G.A. [et al.]. Mediko-biologicheskie effekty khronicheskogo vozdeistviya ioniziruyushchei radiatsii na cheloveka [Medico-biological effects of chronic exposure to ionizing radiation on humans]. Meditsinskaya nauka i obrazovanie Urala, 2008, vol. 9, no. 2 (52), pp. 8–10 (in Russian).
- C A.K., Basel P.L., Singh S. Low birth weight and its associated risk factors: Health facility-based case-control study. PLoS One, 2020, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. e0234907. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0234907
- Sirotina Z.V., Sokolov V.N. High risk factors for fetal development (clinical lecture). Zdravookhranenie Dal'nego Vostoka, 2020, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 59–65 (in Russian).
- Sosnina S.F., Okatenko P.V. Physical development of newborns of female radiation workers. Profilakticheskaya i klinicheskaya meditsina, 2017, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 14–20 (in Russian).
- Volosnikov D.K., Sosnina S.F. Mediko-sotsial'naya kharakteristika semei, prozhivayushchikh v zakrytom adminis¬trativnom territorial'nom obrazovanii (g. Ozersk), imeyushchikh detei podrostkovogo vozrasta [The medical and social characteristics of families with children of adolescent age residing in the closed administrative territorial formation Ozersk]. Sotsiologiya meditsiny, 2010, no. 2, pp. 59–61 (in Russian).