On assessing impacts exerted by objects of accumulated environmental damage on human health and life expectancy
N.V. Zaitseva1, I.V. May1, S.V. Kleyn1, D.А. Kiryanov1, А.М. Andrishunas1, N.N. Sliusar2, Е.V. Maksimova1, М.R. Kamaltdinov1
1Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies, 82 Monastyrskaya Str., Perm, 6140045, Russian Federation
2Perm National Research Polytechnic University, 29 Komsomolsky Ave., Perm, 614990, Russian Federation
This research work is topical since there are a lot of objects of accumulated environmental damage (AED) in the Russian Federation and the task to eliminate them is fixed in the country legislation. These objects are typically brownfields, abandoned industrial building or constructions, abandoned waste disposal landfills etc. In accordance with the “General cleaning” Federal project we have developed methodical approaches to assessing impacts exerted by AED objects on human health and life expectancy. The aim of the methodology is to spot out priority objects which are to be eliminated as soon as possible.
Fuzzy set theory is chosen as a basic method. A unified set of indicators (40 and more) has been developed for each type of AED objects; this set allows assessing how hazardous an object is for population health. The indicators are combined into several conditional groups: overall profile; climatic and spatial characteristics; geological and hydrological properties of a territory; indicators related to quality of the environment in a zone influenced by a specific object. We have used scales to grade a health hazard taking into account weight contributions made by specific indicators and a group of them to the total risk of health disorders. Impacts are assessed allowing for types and severity of potential functional disorders of critical organs and systems in the human body under exposure to contamination.
We suggest an algorithm and techniques for calculating risks of negative impacts. A scale with risk ranges (from 0 to 1) allows determining several risk rates including “low”, “moderate”, “average”, “high” and “extremely high” risk. An AED object is assigned into a risk category which corresponds to the maximum value of the membership function.2
Impacts exerted by objects assigned into “high” and “extremely high” risk categories are to be assessed more profoundly and assessment should involve specific medical and biological examinations.
The methodology was tested successfully. The results proved that the selected approaches were relevant and that it was extremely important to collect complete and actual initial data of environment quality in zones influenced by AED objects.
In 2022 approximately 192 objects are to be assessed; the express-evaluation is to be accomplished by experts of the Federal Service for Surveillance over Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing. As per the evaluation results, all AED objects are to be ranked and those creating the highest health risks are to be detected. The latter are to be eliminated immediately and complete profound assessment is to be performed at them.
- Alykova O., Chuikova L., Chuikov Yu. Accumulated environmental damage: problems and consequences. Message 1. State registry of objects of accumulated environmental damage. Astrakhanskii vestnik ekologicheskogo obrazovaniya, 2021, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 88–113. DOI: 10.36698/2304-5957-2021-2-88-113 (in Russian).
- Alykova O., Chuikova L., Chuikov Yu. Accumulated environmental damage: problems and consequences. Message 2. Analysis of the situation. Astrakhanskii vestnik ekologicheskogo obrazovaniya, 2021, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 114–137. DOI: 10.36698/2304-5957-2021-2-114-137 (in Russian).
- Zinoviev D.S., Pichugin E.A., Cherepanov M.V. Main problems of the state register of accumulated environmental harmfuls. Astrakhanskii vestnik ekologicheskogo obrazovaniya, 2021, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 108–114. DOI: 10.36698/2304-5957-2021-6-108-114 (in Russian).
- Goldenman G. Opyt stran Evropeiskogo soyuza i stran Tsentral'noi i Vostochnoi Evropy v reshenii problem proshlogo ekologicheskogo ushcherba. Diskussionnyi doklad dlya Vsemirnogo banka [Experience of the European Union countries and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe in solving the problems of the ecological crisis. Discussion paper for the World Bank]. InEkA-konsalting LLC, 2006. Available at: https://ineca.ru/?dr=projects&projects=social/pel/material&docname=opyt (08.02.2022) (in Russian).
- Ledashcheva T.N., Chernyshev D.A. Analysis of international experience of cumulative environmental harm problem solution. Naukovedenie, 2014, vol. 25, no. 6, 12 p. DOI: 10.15862/83EVN614 (in Russian).
- Pichugin E.A., Cherepanov M.V., Simakova E.V., Shenfeld B.E. Current issues of identification, accounting, categorization and elimination of the objects of accumulated environmental harm. Problemy regional’noi ekologii, 2021, no. 6, pp. 113–121. DOI: 10.24412/1728-323X-2021-6-113-121 (in Russian).
- Pichugin E.A., Shenfeld B.E. The health of citizens and their life expectancy as a criterion for assessing the negative impact of objects of accumulated environmental damage on the state of the environment and man. Ekologiya urbanizirovannykh territorii, 2021, no. 3, pp. 62–70. DOI: 10.24412/1816-1863-2021-3-62-70 (in Russian).
- Polyakov A.P., Sorokina E.G. Environmental situation as a factor of changes in state of health of population. World Science: Problems And Innovations: sbornik statei pobeditelei V mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. Penza, 2016, pp. 357–360 (in Russian).
- Ivantsova E.A. Otsenka vozdeistviya likvidatsii tekhnogennogo massiva razmeshcheniya otkhodov proizvodstva i potrebleniya na atmosfernyi vozdukh [Assessment of the impact exerted by liquidation of the technogenic array of production and consumption waste disposal on the atmospheric air]. Innovatsionnye tekhnologii zashchity okruzhayushchei sredy v sovremennom mire: materialy Vserossiiskoi nauchnoi konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem molodykh uchenykh i spetsialistov. Kazan, 2021, pp. 1363–1368 (in Russian).
- Tenodi S., Krčmar D., Agbaba J., Zrnić K., Radenović M., Ubavin D., Dalmacija B. Assessment of the environmental impact of sanitary and unsanitary parts of a municipal solid waste landfill. J. Environ. Manage., 2020, vol. 258, pp. 110019. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.110019
- El Fadili H., Ben Ali M., Touach N., El Mahi M., El Lotfi M. Ecotoxicological and pre-remedial risk assessment of heavy metals in municipal solid wastes dumpsite impacted soil in Morocco. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management, 2021, vol. 17, pp. 100640.
- Ojuri O.O., Ayodele F.O., Oluwatuyi O.E. Risk assessment and rehabilitation potential of a millennium city dumpsite in Sub-Saharan Africa. Waste Manage., 2018, vol. 76, pp. 621–628. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2018.03.002
- Ivanova Yu.S., Gorbachev V.N. Heavy metals pollution of soil under the influence of illegal dumping (health and environmental aspects). Ul'yanovskii mediko-biologicheskii zhurnal, 2012, no. 1, pp. 119–124 (in Russian).
- Berezin G.I., Kondakova L.V., Domracheva L.I., Dabakh E.V. Features of soil microbial groups in the area Kilmezsky landfill dumping of toxic chemicals (Kirov region). Printsipy ekologii, 2016, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 4–15 (in Russian).
- Yang W., Cai C., Dai X. Interactions between virus surrogates and sewage sludge vary by viral analyte: recovery, persistence, and sorption. Water Res., 2021, vol. 210, pp. 117995. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2021.117995
- Sakharov V.A., Morozova O.A., Vypryazhkin E.N., I K.H., Fayzulin D.R. The impact of landfill of solid waste on water bodies (on the example of a city dump in the city of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). Uchenye zapiski Sakhalinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2015, vol. 11–12, no. 1, pp. 87–91 (in Russian).
- Ostanina N.V., Kuznetsova E.I., Ocheretyanaya N.N. Problemy, svyazannye s unichtozheniem nekachestvennykh lekarstvennykh preparatov [Problems associated with the destruction of low-quality medicines]. Sotrudnichestvo dlya resheniya problem s otkhodami: tezisy dokladov konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem, 2009, pp. 221–229 (in Russian).
- Mescheriykov S., Gonopolsky A., Ostakh S., Ostakh O. Forecast and analytical assessment of the spread of pollution beyond the sludge accumulators of industrial enterprises. Ekologiya i promyshlennost' Rossii, 2017, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 22–27. DOI: 10.18412/1816-0395-2017-10-22-27 (in Russian).
- Sakharov V.A., Melkii V.A., Nikonova E.V. Otsenka stepeni opasnosti vozniknoveniya neblagopriyatnoi sanitarno-epidemiologicheskoi situatsii v vodonosnykh gorizontakh territorii [As-sessment of the degree of danger caused by an unfavorable sanitary and epidemiological situation in water-bearing horizons on a given territory]. Bezopasnost' zhiznedeyatel'nosti, 2008, vol. 89, no. 5, рр. 61–64 (in Russian).
- Shevchuk A.V. Ecological-economic aspects of elimination of the accumulated damage in the arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Prirodoobustroistvo, 2013, no. 5, рр. 80–83 (in Russian).
- Fokin S.G. The elimination of past environmental liabilities in the arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Sbornik trudov Vserossiiskogo nauchno-issledovatel'skogo instituta okhrany okruzhayushchei sredy za 2019. Moscow, 2019, рр. 37–42 (in Russian).
- Orttung R.W., Anisimov O., Badina S., Burns C., Cho L., Di Napoli B., Jull M., Shaiman M. [et al.]. Measuring the sustainability of Russia’s Arctic cities. Ambio, 2021, vol. 50, no. 11, рр. 2090–2103. DOI: 10.1007/s13280-020-01395-9
- Dregulo A.M. Distribution and specific activity of soil radionuclides in the soils of pastenviromental damage (for example of sewage sludge landfills). Izvestiya Tul'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Nauki o Zemle, 2018, no. 3, рр. 27–35 (in Russian).
- Smičiklas I., Jović M., Janković M., Smiljanić S., Onjia A. Environmental Safety Aspects of Solid Residues Resulting from Acid Mine Drainage Neutralization with Fresh and Aged Red Mud. Water Air Soil Pollut., 2021, vol. 232, no. 12, pp. 490. DOI: 10.1007/s11270-021-05442-3
- Akinci A., Artir R. Characterization of trace elements and radionuclides and their risk assessment in red mud. Materials Characterization, 2008, vol. 59, no. 4, рр. 417–421. DOI: 10.1016/j.matchar.2007.02.008
- Zadeh L.A. Fuzzy sets. Information and Control, 1965, vol. 8, no. 3, рр. 338–353. DOI: 10.1016/S0019-9958(65)90241-X
- Ermakov B.S. Teoriya nechetkikh mnozhestv v prinyatii reshenii [Fuzzy set theory in decision making]. Sistemnyi analiz i logistika, 2014, no. 11, рр. 49–53 (in Russian).
- Zvyagin L.S., Makeichev E.D. Teoriya nechetkikh mnozhestv i funktsiya prinadlezhnosti [Fuzzy set theory and membership function]. Mezhdunarodnaya konferentsiya po myagkim vychisleniyam i izmereniyam, 2015, vol. 2, рр. 144–149 (in Russian).
- Salomon J.A., Haagsma J.A., Davis A., de Noordhout C.M., Polinder S., Havelaar A.H., Cassini A., Devleesschauwer B. [et al.]. Disability weights for the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study. Lancet Glob. Health, 2015, vol. 3, no. 11, рр. e712–e723. DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(15)00069-8
- Fishbern P.S. Utility theory for decision making. In: V.N. Vorob'eva, A.Ya. Kiruta translation. Moscow, Nauka, 1978, 352 р. (in Russian).
- Medford A., Vaupel J.W. Human lifespan records are not remarkable but their durations are. PLoS One, 2019, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. e0212345. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212345
- Mackenbach J.P., Valverde J.R., Bopp M., Brønnum-Hansen H., Deboosere P., Kalediene R., Kovács K., Leinsalu M. [et al.]. Determinants of inequalities in life expectancy: an international comparative study of eight risk factors. Lancet Public Health, 2019, vol. 4, no. 10, рр. e529–e537. DOI: 10.1016/S2468-2667(19)30147-1
- Zaitseva N.V., Zemlyanova M.A. Gigienicheskaya indikatsiya posledstvii dlya zdorov'ya pri vneshnesredovoi ekspozitsii khimicheskikh faktorov [Hygienic indication of health consequences during environmental exposure to chemical factors]. Perm, 2011, 532 p. (in Russian).
- Zaitseva N.V., May I.V., Klein S.V., Khankharev S.S., Boloshinova A.A. Scientific and methodological aspects and practical experience for the formation of the evidential base of hazard to health in the population in the zone of influence of waste from the past economic activity. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2017, vol. 96, no. 11, рр. 1038–1044. DOI: 10.18821/0016-9900-2017-96-11-1038-1044 (in Russian).
- Zaitseva N.V., Ustinova O.Yu., Zemlyanova M.A. Medical and preventive technologies of the management of the risk of health disorders associated with exposure to adverse environmental factors. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2015, vol. 94, no. 2, рр. 109–113 (in Russian).