Age-related aspects in risk of developing nervous system pathology in gymnasium students
О.А. Maklakova1,2, S.L. Valina1, I.Е. Shtina1, D.А. Eisfeld1
1 Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies, 82 Monastyrskaya Str., Perm, 614045, Russian Federation
2 Perm State National Research University, 15 Bukireva Str., Perm, 614990, Russian Federation
Growing neuropsychic disorders caused by intensified educational process are a peculiar feature of schoolchildren’s health at present.
Our research aim was to examine age-related peculiarities in risks of developing nervous system pathology in school-children attending a gymnasium.
We performed clinical examination of 94 children in primary school (Group A) and 56 children in middle school (Group B) who attended a gymnasium. The examination included determining contents of neuromediators and neurotrophic factors in blood, neuro-psychological computer testing (reaction test and STROOP-test). Educational activities were evaluated to determine whether the educational process conformed to hygienic standards. Statistical data analysis involved determining relative risk and odds ratio as well as establishing cause–effect relations.
Hygienic assessment of educational activities revealed several adverse factors that made for developing disorders of the nervous system. They included growing weekly educational loads, irrational distribution of school subjects in schedules, and too long use of interactive whiteboards during lessons. We established that nervous system pathology was already developing in 62.8 % children in primary school and 42.9 % children in middle school. We also revealed that asthenoneurotic syndrome and neurosis-like syndrome were by 2.2 times more probable among primary schoolchildren whereas vegetative dysfunction was by 1.6 times more probable among middle school children. Asthenoneurotic syndrome in primary school children was accompanied with lower NOTCH-1 levels in 41.9 % cases; lower acetylcholine content in blood, in 66.7 %; greater serotonin content in blood, in 29.2 %. The disorder became apparent through increased fatigability and weakness, as well as children being too whiny and moody. Middle school children had by 3.1–6.4 times higher risks of lower neuregulin-1β and tumor necrosis factor contents in blood; developing vegetative dysfunctions in them were accompanied with sleeping disorders, headaches, and palpitation. Primary school children were established to have slower perception of a visual and sound stimulus, developing fatigue of kinesthetic reactions as well as rigid cognitive control and poorly automated gnostic functions.
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