Hygienic assessment of population health risk under exposure to chemicals that penetrate drinking water from household water mixers
V.M. Boev1, I.V. Georgi2, D.A. Kryazhev1, Е.A. Kryazhevа1
1The Orenburg State Medical University, 6 Sovetskaya Str., Orenburg, 460000, Russian Federation
2Bathroom Manufacturers and Vendors Association, bldg. 4, lit. A, 56 Pulkovskoe shosse, St. Petersburg, 196140, Russian Federation
At present a truly vital task is to evaluate possible changes in the structure and properties of drinking water occurring in the process of delivering it to end customers.
Our research aim was to perform hygienic assessment of health risks caused by consumption of drinking water with changed chemical structure influenced by domestic faucets made from zinc alloys.
Hygienic assessment of drinking water was performed to test its conformity with the requirements fixed in the Sanitary Rules and Standards SanPiN 1.2.3685-21 “Hygienic standards and requirements to providing safety and (or) harmlessness of environmental factors for people”. Water samples were aged in new household water mixers with their cases made from ZAM zinc alloy (a zinc alloy doped with aluminum, magnesium, and copper) at pH6 and pH9 in accordance with the State Standard GOST 34771-2021 “Sanitary-technical water mixing and distributing accessories. Testing procedures”. Health risks for children and adults and population risks were assessed for situations involving oral and cutaneous introduction according to the Guide R 126.96.36.1990-04 Human Health Risk Assessment from Environmental Chemicals.
We established that water samples aged in household water mixers contained authentically elevated concentrations of metals included into ZAM alloy, namely copper, nickel, lead, and zinc, both at pH = 6 and pH = 9. We also detected enhanced organoleptic properties: color grew by 2–2.3 times and turbidity by 2.3–5 times. Carcinogenic risks caused by consuming water with changed properties turned out to be unacceptable both for children and adults. We also established that calculated hazard index for the blood system didn’t conform to hygienic requirements; calculated hazard indices for the central nervous system, liver, hormonal and reproductive systems were statistically significantly higher when people consumed drinking water with changed properties. We also calculated population carcinogenic risks for the whole population in the Russian Federation based on the maximum possible exposure to drinking water with changes in its chemical properties due to household water mixers. The total population risks amounted to approximately 131 thousand cases. Our research indicates it is necessary to develop preven-tion activities with a carefully planned monitoring system and control over quality and use of domestic faucets.
- Averin A.N., Lyahov V.P., Evtushenko S.A., Nuvahov T.A. Znachenie natsional'nogo proekta «Ekologiya» dlya ekologicheskogo blagopoluchiya rossiiskogo naseleniya [The significance of the national project “Ecology” for the ecological well-being of the Russian population]. Nauka i obrazovanie: hozyaistvo i ekonomika; predprinimatel'stvo; pravo i upravlenie, 2019, vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 131–134 (in Russian).
- Zaitseva N.V., Popova A.Yu., Onishchenko G.G., May I.V. Current problems of regulatory and scientific-medical support for assurance of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of population in the Russian Federation as the strategic government task. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2016, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 5–9. DOI: 10.18821/0016-9900-2016-95-1-5-9 (in Russian).
- Sinitsyna O.O., Zholdakova Z.I. Metodologiya regional'nogo normirovaniya vodnykh faktorov okruzhayushchei sredy [Methodology for regional regulation of water environmental factors]. Sanitarnyi vrach, 2011, no. 2, pp. 025–026 (in Russian).
- Rakhmanin Yu.A., Rosenthal' O.M. Improvement of water quality control to guarantee qualifying health and hygiene requirements. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2019, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 203–204. DOI: 10.18821/0016-9900-2019-98-2-203-204 (in Russian).
- Khasanova A.A., Chetverkina K.V., Markovich N.I. Determination of priority chemicals of water from centralized supply systems for monitoring water safety. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2021, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 428–435. DOI: 10.47470/0016-9900-2021-100-5-428-435 (in Russian).
- Vozhdaeva M.Y., Kholova A.R., Vagner E.V., Trukhanova N.V., Melnitskiy I.A., Mullodzhanov T.T., Kantor E.A. Changes in the indicators of chemical safety of drinking water in Ufa during its transportation to consumers. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2021, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 396–405. DOI: 10.47470/0016-9900-2021-100-4-396-405 (in Russian).
- Klein S.V., Zaitseva N.V., May I.V., Kir'yanov D.A. Analiz struktury i prostranstvennogo raspredeleniya potentsial'nykh riskov prichineniya vreda zdorov'yu pri osushchestvlenii khozyaistvennoi deyatel'nosti v sfere «Sbor i ochistka vody» [Analysis of the structure and spatial distribution of potential risks of harm to health due to economic activities performed in the sphere of “Collection and purification of water”]. Aktual'nye voprosy analiza riska pri obespechenii sanitarno-epidemiologicheskogo blagopoluchiya naseleniya i zashchity prav potrebitelei: materialy VIII Vserossiiskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem. In: A.Yu. Popova, N.V. Zaitseva eds. Perm, 2018, pp. 154–161 (in Russian).
- Ivanov A.V., Davletova N.H., Tafeeva E.A. Analysis of modern views on the migration of polymeric substances from the packaging into the drinking water during storage and their influence on living organisms. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2013, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 25–29 (in Russian).
- Kryazheva E.A., Boev V.M., Kryazhev D.A. Gigienicheskaya otsenka pit'evoi vody, potreblyaemoi naseleniem goroda Orenburga [Hygienic assessment of drinking water consumed by population in Orenburg]. Al'manakh molodoi nauki, 2018, no. 3, pp. 3–8 (in Russian).
- Kuznetsov K.S., Belkina A.A., Yadrova A.A. Otsenka kachestva pit'evoi vody, podavaemoi iz tsentralizovannykh sistem vodosnabzheniya v g. Moskva (Rossiya) [Assessment of the quality of drinking water supplied from centralized water supply systems in Moscow (Russia)]. Mezhdunarodnyi studencheskii nauchnyi vestnik, 2018, no. 4 (part 4), pp. 681–685 (in Russian).
- Lapshin A.P., Ignat'eva L.P. Qualitative composition of drinking water at the purification and transportation stages. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tekhnika, 2016, no. 6, pp. 31–35 (in Russian).
- Katola V.M. The reason for heavy metals in tap and drinking water. Vodoochistka. Vodopodgotovka. Vodosnabzhenie, 2015, vol. 92, no. 8, pp. 4–8 (in Russian).
- Klein S.V., Vekovshinina S.A., Sboev A.S. Priority risk factors of drinking water and the related with it economical loss. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2016, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 10–14. DOI: 10.18821/0016-9900-2016-95-1-10-14 (in Russian).
- Zholdakova Z.I., Kharchevnikova N.V., Mamonov R.A., Sinitsyna O.O. Methods for estimating the combined effect of substances. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2012, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 86–89 (in Russian).
- Buzinov R.V., Mironovskaya A.V., Unguryanu T.N. Kachestvo pit'evoi vody v Arkhangel'skoi oblasti i ee vliyanie na sostoyanie zdorov'ya naseleniya [Drinking water quality in the Arkhangelsk region and its impact on health status of the population]. Vodoochistka. Vodopodgotovka. Vodosnabzhenie, 2011, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 10–12 (in Russian).
- Kiku P.F., Kislitsyna L.V., Bogdanova V.D., Sabirova K.M. Hygienic evaluation of the quality of drinking water and risks for the health of the population of the Primorye territoty. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2019, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 94–101. DOI: 10.18821/0016-9900-2019-98-1-94-101 (in Russian).
- Zaytseva N.V., Ustinova O.Yu., Sboev A.S. Medical and preventive technologies for risk management of health problems associated with exposure to environmental factors. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2016, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 17–22. DOI: 10.18821/0016-9900-2016-95-1-17-22 (in Russian).
- Zemlyanova M.A., Fedorova N.E., Koldibekova Yu.V. Biochemical markers of adverse effects in children exposed to chlororganic compounds through drinking water. ZNiSO, 2011, vol. 222, no. 9, pp. 33–37 (in Russian).
- Zyazina T.V., Vasilyeva M.V. Testing of heavy metals in drinking water and risk assessment of developing ecopathology in urban population. Nauka i biznes: puti razvitiya, 2014, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 5–10 (in Russian).
- Rodyukova O.A., Krutilin V.E., Avchinnikov A.V. Kachestvo pit'evoi vody i sostoyanie zdorov'ya naseleniya [Drinking water quality and health status of the population]. Sanitarnyi vrach, 2012, no. 10, pp. 045–047 (in Russian).
- Sboev A.S., Vekovshinina S.A. To the problem of the assessment and increase of the effectiveness of control-supervisory arrangements providing Perm region population with clear drinking water. Zdorov'e sem'i – 21 vek, 2015, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 116–135 (in Russian).