On revealing risk groups regarding emotional burn-out syndrome among medical workers during the covid-19 pandemic
T.A. Platonova1, A.A. Golubkova2,3, S.S. Smirnova4,5, E.V. Dyachenko5, K.V. Shahova1, A.D. Nikitskaya6
1European medical center “UMMC-Health”, 113 Sheinkmana Str., Ekaterinburg, 620144, Russian Federation
2Central research institute of epidemiology, 3А Novogireevskaya Str., Moscow, 111123, Russian Federation
3Russian Medical Academy for Continuous Professional Education, bldg. 1, 2/1 Barrikadnaya Str., Moscow, 125993, Russian Federation
4Ekaterinburg Research Institute of Viral Infections of the “Vector” State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology, 23 Letnyaya Str., Ekaterinburg, 620030, Russian Federation
5Ural State Medical University, 3 Repina Str., Ekaterinburg, 620028, Russian Federation
6N.I. Pirogov’s Municipal Clinical Hospital No. 1, 8 Leninsky Ave., 117049, Moscow, Russian Federation
Medical workers have become a most affected population group during the pandemic of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19). They were the first to start fighting against an unknown infection and at that stage their psychoemotional state determined not only correct evaluations of a situation but also relevant planning regarding control over it.
Our research aim was to reveal risk groups among medical workers regarding developing emotional burnout syndrome and peculiarities of reacting to stress in an emergency epidemic situation.
We applied our own author’s anonymous online poll available at Google platform to examine psychoemotional state of medical workers. The poll had a built-in “Scale of perceived stress-10” that included two sub-scales; one of them measured a subjectively perceived level of the situation strain and the other, the amounts of efforts made by medical workers to overcome it. The poll was performed in November–December 2020; overall, 638 medical workers took part in it. They were of different age and sex and had different positions and working experience.
We established great variability in individual levels of overstrain as per the stress perception sub-scale (Ех < 0; Ех = –0.59) with more “low” than “high” values as per this sub-scale (Аs > 0; Аs = 5.66). Having analyzed variability of values as per the stress overcoming sub-scale, we revealed that they were homogenous (Ех > 0; Ех = 3.98) with prevailing “high” values (Аs < 0; Аs = –6.97).
Medical workers with their working experience being shorter than 5 years turned out to be a risk group with the most destructive reactions to long-term affecting stress factors at work and at home during the COVID-19 pandemic. Apart from them, high mental risks were also detected for workers who treated patients with COVID-19 as well as those who had previously had the coronavirus infection.
The research allowed obtaining actual data on psychoemotional state of medical workers during the COVID-19 pandemic and determining potential risk groups regarding developing emotional burnout syndrome. We substantiated the necessity to constantly provide psychological trainings for medical workers with their focus on peculiarities of their reacting during the first meeting with destabilizing factors and with further adjustment of educational programs provided for potential risk groups.
- Briko N.I., Kagramanyan I.N., Nikiforov V.V., Suranova T.G., Chernyavskaya O.Р., Polezhaeva N.A. Pandemic COVID-19. Prevention Measures in the Russian Federation. Epidemiologiya i vaktsinoprofilaktika, 2020, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 4–12. DOI: 10.31631/2073-3046-2020-19-2-4-12 (in Russian).
- Shchelkanov M.Yu., Kolobukhina L.V., Burgasova O.A., Kruzhkova I.S., Maleev V.V. COVID-19: etiology, clinical picture, treatment. Infektsiya i immunitet, 2020, vol. 10, no. 3, рр. 421–445. DOI: 10.15789/2220-7619-CEC-1473 (in Russian).
- Coronavirus (COVID-19): online map showing the coronavirus infection spread. Available at: https://coronavirus-monitor.ru/ (01.03.2021) (in Russian).
- Coronavirus: online map of coronavirus infection, statistics. Available at: https://coronavirus-monitor.info/ (01.03.2021) (in Russian).
- Shakirova A.T., Koibagarova A.A., Osmonaliev M.K., Ahmedov M.T., Ibraimova A.J. Impact of COVID-19 on the psychological state of people. Evraziiskii soyuz uchenyh, 2020, vol. 79, no. 10, рр. 50–53 (in Russian).
- Alserehi Н.А., Alqunaibet А.М., Al-Tawfiq J.A., Alharbi N.K., Alshukairi A.N., Alanazi K.H., Bin Saleh G.M., Alshehri A.M. [et al.]. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) among healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia: comparing case and control hospitals. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 2021, vol. 99, no. 3, рр. 115273. DOI: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2020.115273
- Chou R., Dana T., Buckley D.I., Selph S., Fu R., Totten A.M. Epidemiology of and Risk Factors for Coronavirus Infection in Health Care Workers: A Living Rapid Review. Ann. Intern. Med., 2020, vol. 173, no. 2, рр. 120–136. DOI: 10.7326/M20-1632
- Kursumovic E., Lennane S., Cook T. Deaths in healthcare workers due to COVID-19: the need for robust data and analysis. Anaesthesia, 2020, vol. 75, no. 8, рр. 989–992. DOI: 10.1111/anae.15116
- Wang X., Liu W., Zhao J., Lu Y., Wang X., Yu C., Hu S., Shen N. [et al.]. Clinical characteristics of 80 hospitalized frontline medical workers infected with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. J. Hosp. Infect., 2020, vol. 105, no. 3, рр. 399–403. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.04.019
- Calo F., Russo A., Camaioni C., De Pascalis S., Coppola N. Burden, risk assessment, surveillance and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in health workers: a scoping review. Infect. Dis. Poverty, 2020, vol. 9, no. 1, рр. 139. DOI: 10.1186/s40249-020-00756-6
- Treibel T.A., Manisty C., Burton M., McKnight A., Lambourne J., Augusto J.B., Couto-Parada X., Cutino-Moguel T. [et al.]. COVID-19: PCR screening of asymptomatic health-care workers at London hospital. Lancet, 2020, vol. 395, no. 10237, рр. 1608–1610. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31100-4
- Hunter E., Price D.A., Murphy E., van der Loeff I.S., Baker K.F., Lendrem D., Lendrem C., Schmid M.L. [et al.]. First ex-perience of COVID-19 screening of health care workers in England. Lancet, 2020, vol. 395, no. 10234, рр. e77–e78. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30970-3
- Tan Z., Khoo D.W.S., Zeng L.A., Tien J.-C.C., Lee A.K.Y., Ong Y.Y., Teo M.M., Abdullah H.R. Protecting health care workers in the front line: Innovation in COVID-19 pandemic. J. Glob. Health, 2020, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 010357. DOI: 10.7189/jogh.10.010357
- Nguyen L.H., Drew D.A., Graham M.S., Joshi A.D., Guo C.-G., Ma W., Mehta R.S., Warner E.T. [et al.]. Risk of COVID-19 among front-line health-care workers and the general community: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Public Health, 2020, vol. 5, no. 9, рр. 475–483. DOI: 10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30164-X
- Tsaranov K.N., Zhiltsov V.A., Klimova E.M., Tarbastaev A.G. Perceptions of personal safety hazards in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic by USA and Russian medical staff. Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo oblastnogo universiteta, 2020, no. 2, pp. 236–247 (in Russian).
- El-Hage W., Hingray C., Lemogne C., Yrondi A., Brunault P., Bienvenu T., Etain B., Paquet C. [et al.]. Health professionals facing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: What are the mental health risks? Encephale, 2020, vol. 46, no. 3S, pp. S73–S80. DOI: 10.1016/j.encep.2020.04.008 (in French).
- Kononov A.N. Anxiety about the future in the context of a coronavirus pandemic: a content analysis study. Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo oblastnogo universiteta. Seriya: Psikhologicheskie nauki, 2020, no. 3, pp. 18–28. DOI: 10.18384/2310-7235-2020-3-18-28 (in Russian).
- Petrikov S.S., Kholmogorova A.B., Suroegina A.Yu., Mikita O.Yu., Roy A.P., Rakhmanina A.A. Professional burnout, symptoms of emotional disorders and distress among healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 epidemic. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya, 2020, vol. 28, no. 2 (108), pp. 8–45. DOI: 10.17759/cpp.2020280202 (in Russian).
- Piskunova V.V. Psychological preparedness of future nurses to provide medical services in a pandemic. Vestnik Prikamskogo social'nogo instituta, 2020, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 57–59 (in Russian).
- Rasskazova E.I., Leontiev D.A., Lebedeva A.A. Pandemic as a challenge to subjective well-being: anxiety and coping. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya, 2020, vol. 28, no. 2 (108), рр. 90–108 (in Russian).
- Staniszevska Z., Staniszevski M. Perspectives and significance of psychoprevention and psychotherapy of the consequences of global stressful situations in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. Studia Humanitatis, 2020, no. 3, pp. 8 (in Russian).
- Kholmogorova A.B., Petrikov S.S., Suroyegina A.Yu., Mikita O.Yu., Rakhmanina A.A., Roy A.P. Burnout and its factors in healthcare workers involved in providing health care for patients with COVID-19 at different stages of the pandemic. Neotlozhnaya meditsinskaya pomoshch'. Zhurnal im. N.V. Sklifosovskogo, 2020, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 321–337. DOI: 10.23934/2223-9022-2020-9-3-321-337 (in Russian).
- Xiang Y.-T., Yang Y., Li W., Zhang L., Zhang Q., Cheung T., Ng C.H. Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. Lancet Psychiatry, 2020, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 228–229. DOI: 10.1016/s2215-0366(20)30046-8
- Tan B.Y.Q., Chew N.W.S., Lee G.K.H., Jing M., Goh Y., Yeo L.L.L., Zhang K., Chin H.-K. [et al.]. Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Health Care. Ann. Intern. Med., 2020, vol. 173, no. 4, pp. 317–320. DOI: 10.7326/M20-1083
- Lasalvia A., Bonetto C., Porru S., Carta A., Tardivo S., Bovo C., Ruggeri M., Amaddeo F. Psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare workers in a highly burdened area of north-east Italy. Epidemiol. Psychiatr. Sci., 2020, vol. 30, pр. e1. DOI: 10.1017/S2045796020001158
- Bohlken J., Schömig F., Lemke M.R., Pumberger M., Riedel-Heller S.G. COVID-19-Pandemie: Belastungen des medizinischen Personals [COVID-19 Pandemic: Stress Experience of Healthcare Workers – A Short Current Review]. Psychiatr. Prax., 2020, vol. 47, no. 4, рр. 190–197. DOI: 10.1055/a-1159-5551 (in German).
- Sahebi A., Nejati B., Moayedi S., Yousefi K., Torres M., Golitaleb M. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: An umbrella review of meta-analyses. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psy-chiatry, 2021, vol. 107, рр. 110247. DOI: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2021.110247
- Barello S., Palamenghi L., Graffigna G. Burnout and somatic symptoms among frontline healthcare professionals at the peak of the Italian COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatry Res., 2020, vol. 290, рр. 113129. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113129
- Suryavanshi N., Kadam A., Dhumal G., Nimkar S., Mave V., Gupta A., Cox S.R., Gupte N. Mental health and quality of life among healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic in India. Brain Behav., 2020, vol. 10, no. 11, рр. e01837. DOI: 10.1002/brb3.1837
- Lasalvia A., Amaddeo F., Porru S., Carta A., Tardivo S., Bovo C., Ruggeri M., Bonetto C. Levels of burn-out among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic and their associated factors: a cross-sectional study in a tertiary hospital of a highly burdened area of north-east Italy. BMJ Open, 2021, vol. 11, no. 1, рр. e045127. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-045127
- Chew N.W.S., Lee G.K.H., Tan B.Y.Q., Jing M., Goh Y., Ngiam N.J.H., Yeo L.L.L., Ahmad A. [et al.]. A multinational, multicentre study on the psychological outcomes and associated physical symptoms amongst healthcare workers during COVID-19 outbreak. Brain Behav. Immun., 2020, vol. 88, рр. 559–565. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.049
- Pervichko E., Koniukhovskaia J. Psychological well-being of doctors and healthcare providers during the COVID-19 pandemic: overview of foreign studies. Psikhiatriya, psikhoterapiya i klinicheskaya psikhologiya, 2020, vol. 11, no. 3, рр. 595–608. DOI: 10.34883/PI.2020.11.3.016 (in Russian).
- Lu W., Wang H., Lin Y., Li L. Psychological status of medical workforce during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study. Psychiatry Res., 2020, vol. 288, pp. 112936. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112936
- Duan L., Zhu G. Psychological interventions for people affected by the COVID-19 epidemic. Lancet Psychiatry, 2020, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 300–302. DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30073-0
- Lima C.K.T., de Medeiros Carvalho P.M., de Araújo Araruna Silva Lima I., de Oliveira Nunes J.V.A., Saraiva J.S., de Souza R.I., da Silva C.G.L., Neto M.L.R. The emotional impact of Coronavirus 2019-nCoV (new Coronavirus disease). Psychiatry Res., 2020, vol. 287, pp. 112915. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112915
- Shen X., Zou X., Zhong X., Yan J., Li L. Psychological stress of ICU nurses in the time of COVID-19. Crit. Care, 2020, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 200. DOI: 10.1186/s13054-020-02926-2
- Lee S.M., Kang W.S., Cho A.-R., Kim T., Park J.K. Psychological impact of the 2015 MERS outbreak on hospital workers and quarantined hemodialysis patients. Compr. Psychiatry, 2018, vol. 87, pp. 123–127. DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2018.10.003
- Chen Q., Liang M., Li Y., Guo J., Fei D., Wang L., He L., Sheng C. [et al.]. Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Lancet Psychiatry, 2020, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. e15–e16. DOI: 10.1016/s2215-0366(20)30078-x
- Shanafelt T., Ripp J., Trockel M. Understanding and Addressing Sources of Anxiety Among Health Care Professionals During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA, 2020, vol. 323, no. 21, рр. 2133–2134. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.5893
- Abrosimov I.N., Vorotylo N.V., Kuznetsova Yu.S., Volchkova Yu.V., Pankova D.P., Sadjaya S.T., Kanatbek quzu A., Samil-ina U.V. Experience in organizing psychological training of medical personnel to work with patients with COVID-19. Meditsinskaya psikhologiya v Rossii, 2021, vol. 13, no. 2 (67), pр. 1–6. DOI: 10.24412/2219-8245-2021-2-2 (in Russian).
- Ornell F., Halpern S.C., Kessler F.H.P., de Magalhães Narvaez J.C. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of healthcare professional. Cad. Saude Publica, 2020, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. e00063520. DOI: 10.1590/0102-311X00063520
- Maslach C., Schaufeli W.B., Leiter M.P. Job burnout. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 2001, vol. 52, рр. 397–422. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397
- Vayr F., Herin F., Jullian B., Soulat J.M., Franchitto N. Barriers to seeking help for physicians with substance use disorder: A review. Drug Alcohol Depend., 2019, vol. 199, pp. 116–121. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.04.004
- Blake H., Bermingham F., Johnson G., Tabner A. Mitigating the Psychological Impact of COVID-19 on Healthcare Workers: A Digital Learning Package. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2020, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 2997. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17092997
- Ho C.S., Chee C.Y., Ho R.C. Mental Health Strategies to Combat the Psychological Impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Beyond Paranoia and Panic. Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 2020, vol. 49, no. 3, рр. 155–160.
- Li W., Yuan Y., Liu Z.-H., Zhao Y.-J., Zhang Q., Zhang L., Cheung T., Xiang Y.-T. Progression of Mental Health Services during the COVID-19 Outbreak in China. Int. J. Biol. Sci., 2020, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1732–1738. DOI: 10.7150/ijbs.45120