Efficiency of disinsection and deratization aimed at reducing epidemiologic risks in gorno-altaiskiy high-mountain natural plague focus
A.N. Matrosov1, E.V. Chipanin2, A.Ya. Nikitin2, A.V. Denisov3, A.I. Mishchenko3, E.N. Rozhdestvensky3, A.A. Kuznetsov1, N.V. Popov1
1«Microbe» Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute, 46 Universitetskaya Str., Saratov, 410005, Russian Federation
2Irkutsk Research Anti-Plague Institute, 78 Trilisser Str., Irkutsk, 664047, Russian Federation
3Altai Plague Control Station, 2 Zavodskaya Str., Gorno-Altaysk, 649002, Republic of Altai, Russian Federation
Our research aim was to estimate efficiency of emergency disinsection and deratization that were accomplished to reduce risks of diseases among population in Gorno-Altaiskiy high-mountain natural plague focus.
The research was performed in 2016–2021 in Gorno-Altaiskiy high-mountain plague focus which is the northern part of Sailygem cross-border natural focus located both in Russia and Mongolia. Zoological, epizootologic, epidemiological and statistical research procedures as well as GIS-tools were applied to collect and analyze research data.
Epidemiologic surveillance over plague in the focus has been accomplished since 1961. Prior to 2011 only rhamnoso-positive strains of the plague microbe with selective virulence were found here, belonging to the Central Asian subspecies Yersinia pestis altaica, circulating mainly in the population of the Ochotona pallassi. Given that, the focus was believed to have low epidemic potential. Since 2012 highly virulent strains of the basic plague microbe Yersinia pestis ssp. pestis started to occur in populations of Marmota baibacina and other carriers. As a result, starting from that period of time, epidemiologic status of the focus changed and it led to 3 cases of bubonic plague among humans in 2014–2016. Disinsection and deratization remained the major components in anti-epidemic activities aimed at non-specific plague prevention. In 2016–2021 fields disinsection covered a total square equal to 162.7 km2; disinsection in settlements, 127.3 thousand m2; deratization in settlements, 461.7 thousand m2. An approach involving disinsection only on land spots that were considered epidemically hazardous was first implemented; such land spots were around livestock breeders’ camps located within boundaries of detected epizooties. Efficiency of fields disinsection amounted to 94.6; disinsection in settlements, 100 %; deratization in settlements, 88.0 %. Population of plague vectors and carriers was controlled bearing in mind environmental aspects in regulating numbers of animals and compliance with environmental protection requirements.
Deratization and disinsection, together with other activities aimed at plague prevention, provide epidemiologic welfare in the focus and reduce its epizootic activity.
- Josko D. Yersinia pestis: still a plague in the 21st century. Clin. Lab. Sci., 2004, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 25–29.
- Prirodnye ochagi chumy Kavkaza, Prikaspiya, Srednei Azii i Sibiri [Natural plague foci in the Caucasus, the Caspian sea, Central Asia and Siberia]. In: G.G. Onishchenko, V.A. Kutyrev eds. Moscow, «Meditsina», 2004, 192 p. (in Russian).
- Duplantier J.M., Duchemin J.B., Chanteau S., Carniel E. From the recent lessons of the Malagasy foci towards a global understanding of the factors involved in plague reemergence. Vet. Res., 2005, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 437–453. DOI: 10.1051/vetres: 2005007
- Luo H., Dong X., Li F., Xie X., Song Z., Shao Z., Li Z., Tong Z. [et al.]. Cluster of primary pneumonic plague transmitted in a truck cab in a new enzootic focus in China. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2013, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 923–928. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.12-0163
- Andrianaivoarimanana V., Piola P., Wagner D.M., Rakotomanana F., Maheriniaina V., Andrianalimanana S., Chanteau S., Rahalison L. [et al.]. Trends of human plague, Madagascar, 1998–2016. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2019, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 220–228. DOI: 10.3201/eid2502.171974
- Gage K.L., Kosoy M.Y. Natural history of plague perspectives from more than a century of research. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 2005, vol. 50, pp. 505–528. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ento.50.071803.130337
- Bertherat E. Plague around the world, 2010–2015. Wkly Epidemiol. Rec., 2016, vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 89–93.
- Bramanti B., Stenseth N.C., Walle L., Lei X. Plague: A disease which changed the path of human civilization. Yersinia pestis: Retrospective and Perspective. Dordrecht, Springer, 2016, pp. 1–26.
- Yersinia pestis: Retrospective and Perspective. In: R. Yang, A. Anisimov eds. Advanced in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 2016, vol. 918, 397 p.
- Obespechenie epidemiologicheskogo blagopoluchiya v prirodnykh ochagakh chumy na territorii stran SNG i Mongolii v sovremennykh usloviyakh. [Provision of epidemiological welfare in the natural plague foci in the UIS countries and Mongolia under current conditions]. In: A.Yu. Popova, V.V. Kutyrev eds. Izhevsk, OOO «Print», 2018, 336 p. (in Russian).
- Campbell S.B., Nelson C.A., Hinckley A.F., Kugeler K.J. Аnimal exposure and human plague, United States, 1970–2017. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2019, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 2270–2273. DOI: 10.3201/eid2512.191081
- Bertherat E. Plague around the world in 2019. Wkly Epidemiol. Rec., 2019, vol. 94, no. 25, pp. 289–292.
- Popov N.V., Eroshenko G.A., Karnaukhov I.G., Kuznetsov A.A., Matrosov A.N., Ivanova A.V., Porshakov A.M., Lyapin M.N. [et al.]. Epidemiological and epizootic situation on plague in the Russian Federation and forecast for its development for 2020–2025. Problemy osobo opasnykh infektsii, 2020, no. 1, pp. 43–45. DOI: 10.21055/0370-1069-2020-1-43-50 (in Russian).
- Reihm J.M., Vergnaud G., Kiefer D., Damdindorj T., Dashdavaa O., Khurelsukh T., Zöller L., Wölfel R. [et al.]. Yersinia pestis lineages in Mongolia. PLoS One, 2012, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. e30624. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030624
- Adjaasuren Z., Tserennorov D., Myagmar J., Ganhuyag C., Otgonbayar D., Bayar T., Verzhutsky D.B., Ganbold D., Balakhonov S.V. Current situation in the natural plague foci of Mongolia. Dal'nevostochnyi zhurnal infektsionnoi patologii, 2014, vol. 25, no. 25, pp. 22–25 (in Russian).
- Zhao S.-S., Pulati Y., Yin X.-P., Li W., Wang B.-J., Yang K., Chen C.-F., Wang Y.-Z. Wildlife plague surveillance near the China–Kazakhstan border: 2012–2015. Transbound. Emerg. Dis., 2017, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. e48–e51. DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12603
17.Abdikarimov S.T., Ibragimov E.S., Egembergenov Ch.E. Current epizootic condition of natural plague foci in Kyrgyz Republic and measures aimed at provision of epidemiological welfare as regards plague. Problemy osobo opasnykh infektsii, 2018, no. 2, pp. 45–48. DOI: 10.21055/0370-1069-2018-2-45-48 (in Russian).
18.Verzhutskiy D.B. Activation of the plague natural foci in Central Asia: groundless apprehensions or a real threat. Priroda vnutrennei Azii (Nature of inner Asia), 2018, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 7–18. DOI: 10.18101/2542-0623-2018-1-7-18 (in Russian).
- Jones S.D., Atshabar B., Schmid B.V., Zuk M., Amramina A., Stenseth N.C. Living with plague: Lessons from the Soviet Union’s antiplague system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2019, vol. 116, no. 19, pp. 9155–9163. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1817339116
- Kuznetsov A.A., Matrosov A.N., Porshakov A.M., Sludsky A.A., Kovalevskaya A.A., Toporkov V.P. Principles of cartographic differentiation and epidemiologic zoning of natural plague foci applied to assess and minimize population health risks. Health Risk Analysis, 2018, no. 4, pp. 96–104. DOI: 10.21668/health.risk/2018.4.11.eng
21.Verzhutsky D.B., Adiyasuren Z. Natural plague foci in Mongolia: annotated list. Baikal'skii zoologicheskii zhurnal, 2019, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 92–103 (in Russian).
- The Atlas of plague and its environment in the People’s Republic of China. China, Science Press, 2004, 221 p.
- Popova A.Yu., Kutyrev V.V., Balakhonov S.V., Ezhlova E.B., DeminaYu.V., Pakskina N.D., Shchuchinov L.V., Popov N.V. [et al.]. Coordination of measures of plague control institutions, aimed at rehabilitation and sanitation of Gorno-Altai high-mountain natural plague focus in 2016. Problemy osobo opasnykh infektsii, 2016, no. 4, pp. 5–10. DOI: 10.21055/0370-1069-2016-4-5-10 (in Russian).
- Popova A.Yu., Balakhonov S.V., Shchuchinov L.V., Matrosov A.N., Mikhaylov E.P., Mishchenko A.I., Denisov A.V., Shefer V.V. [et al.]. Organization of plague control and prevention measures on the territory of Kosh-Agach district of the Altai Republic and estimation of their effectiveness. Infektsionnye bolezni, 2018, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 5–15. DOI: 10.20953/1729-9225-2018-4-5-15 (in Russian).
- Kadastr epidemicheskikh i epizooticheskikh proyavlenii chumy na territorii Rossiiskoi Federatsii i stran blizhnego zarubezh'ya s 1876 po 2016 god [Inventory of epidemic and episodic manifestations of plague in the territory of the Russian Federation and the neighboring countries from 1876 to 2016]. In: V.V. Kutyrev, A.Yu. Popova eds. Saratov, OOO «Amirit», 2016, 248 p. (in Russian).
- Meka-Mechenko V.G., Sarayev F.A., Belyayev A.I., Kulemin M.V., Sazhnev Yu.S., Nauruzbaev E.O. The history of non-specific prevention of plague in the Republic of Kazakhstan and its current state. Karantinnye i zoonoznye infektsii v Kazakhstane, 2020, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 23–38 (in Russian).
- Verzhutski D.B., Nikitin A.Ya., Kovaleva N.I., Galatsevich N.F., Chumakova N.A., Tkachenko S.V., Chumakov A.V. Main results of preventive disinfestation measures in the Sagil valley (Tyva natural plague focus). Dal'nevostochnyi zhurnal infektsionnoi patologii, 2014, no. 25, pp. 18–22 (in Russian).
- Balakhonov S.V., Schuchinov L.V., Mischenko A.I., Matrosov A.N., Denisov A.V., Rozhdestvensky E.N., Korzun V.M., Kosilko S.A. [et al.]. Organization of preventive, anti-epidemic actions to decrease risks of epidemic situation complications for plague in Republic Altai. Zhurnal mikrobiologii, epidemiologii i immunologii, 2018, no. 6, pp. 85–94. DOI: 10.36233/0372-9311-2018-6-85-94 (in Russian).
- Ibragimov E.Sh. Non-specific prophylaxis in the Tien Shan high-mountain natural plague focus: past and present. Problemy osobo opasnykh infektsii, 2015, no. 4, pp. 18–21 (in Russian).
- Shilova S.A. Biologicheskoe raznoobrazie i kontrol' chislennosti «problemnykh» vidov zhivotnykh: kompromissy, protivorechiya, perspektivy [Biological diversity and population control over "problematic" animal species: compromises, contradictions, prospects]. RET-info, 2005, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 8–10 (in Russian).
- Metzger M.E., Rust M.K. Laboratory evaluation of Fipronil and Imidacloprid Topical Insecticides for control of the plague vector Oropsylla montana (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) on California Ground Squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae). J. Med. Entomol., 2002, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 152–161. DOI: 10.1603/0022-2585-39.1.152
- Nikitin A.Ya., Kardash A.I. Vozmozhnost' ispol'zovaniya nekotorykh piretroidov dlya profilaktiki chumy v prirodnykh ochagakh Sibiri suslikovogo tipa [The possibility of using some pyrethroids to prevent plague in natural foci of Siberian gopher type]. Meditsinskaya parazitologiya i parazitarnye bolezni, 2009, no. 4, pp. 42–44 (in Russian).
- Burdelov L.A., Zhumadilova Z.B., Meka-Mechenko V.G., Sazhnev Yu.S., Akimbaev B.A., Saylaubekuly R., Abdukarimov N., Belyayev A.I. [et al.]. Results of three-year field testing of aerosolization of the great gerbil (Rhombomys Opimus) burrows with ultra-small doses of pesticides. Karantinnye i zoonoznye infektsii v Kazakhstane, 2014, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 14–21 (in Russian).
- Gorno-Altaiskii prirodnyi ochag chumy: Retrospektivnyi analiz, epizootologicheskii monitoring, sovremennoe sostoyanie [Gorno-Altai natural plague outbreak: Retrospective analysis, epizootological monitoring, current status]. In: S.V. Balakhonov, V.M. Korzun eds. Novosibirsk, Nauka-Tsentr, 2014, 272 p. (in Russian).
- Yarygina M.B., Korzun V.M., Balakhonov S.V. Genotypical structuring of Yersinia pestis ssp. altaica in Gorno-Altai high-mountainous natural plague focus. Dal'nevostochnyi zhurnal infektsionnoi patologii, 2019, vol. 37, no. 37, pp. 86–87 (in Russian).
- Singleton G.R., Leirs H., Hinds L.A., Zhang Z. Ecologically-based management of rodent pest: reevaluating our approach to an old problem. Ecologically-based Rodent Management, 1999, pp. 17–29.