Assessing acute inhalation health risk caused by exposure to products created by nicotine-containing stuff consumption in enclosed spaces
E.V. Zaritskaya1,2, V.N. Fedorov1,2, I.S. Iakubova2
1North-West Scientific Center for Hygiene and Public Health, 4 2-ya Sovetskaya Str., Saint Petersburg, 191036, Russian Federation
2North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, 41 Kirochnaya Str., Saint Petersburg, 195067, Russian Federation
Contemporary research reveals that electronic devices for nicotine consumption produce not so negative effects on health due to adverse chemicals being emitted in substantially lower quantities. Nevertheless, such consumption still results in emission of various organic and non-organic substances with their effects on health being rather unpredictable. It is necessary to conduct additional studies, including those focusing on passive smoking of electronic cigarettes and assessing health risks caused by exposure to them.
Our research goal was to assess acute health risks caused by passive consumption of tobacco and nicotine-containing products.
We built a model for tobacco or nicotine consumption by actual consumers (volunteers) and the process was evened as per a number of consumption sessions. We examined three products: tobacco cigarettes (cigarettes), electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS), and a tobacco heating system (IQOS). Background air quality parameters were measured in a specifically organized enclosed space prior to each study session. We also conducted experiments in so called «reference groups» when research participants didn’t consume the examined products but were in the same conditions. Health risks were assessed as per the Guide R 184.108.40.2060-04 «The Guide on assessing health risks caused by exposure to chemicals that pollute the environment».
Use of ENDS and IQOS does not result in significant changes in air composure and does not cause unacceptable acute health risk. Combined effects produced by contaminants on organs and systems resulted in health risks for respiratory organs, eyes, and body as a whole being insignificantly higher than permissible levels; these risks were practically the same as those detected for a reference group. Tobacco smoking resulted in unacceptable acute risks 1.5 hours after an experiment started; these risks were caused by elevated concentrations of such contaminants as acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, PM2.5, PM10, and carbon monoxide.
- Zubairova L.D., Zubairov D.M. Kurenie kak faktor riska serdechno-sosudistykh zabolevanii [Smoking as a risk factor causing cardiovascular diseases]. Kazanskii meditsinskii zhurnal, 2006, no. 5, pp. 369–373 (in Russian).
- Krasnova Yu.N. Effects of tobacco smoking on the respiratory system. Sibirskii meditsinskii zhurnal (Irkutsk), 2015, no. 6, pp. 11–15 (in Russian).
- Tobacco use monitoring and preventive policy. World health organization, 2017. Available at: http://www.who.int/fctc/mediacentre/press-release/wntd–2017/en (27.01.2021).
- Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems and Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS/EnNDS). Report. World health organization, 2017. Available at: https://www.who.int/tobacco/communications/statements/eletronic-cigarett... (27.01.2021).
- Valova A.V., Garipova R.N., Popova O.Yu., Tsapok P.I. Izuchenie vliyaniya osnovnykh komponentov elektronnykh sigaret na organizm cheloveka. Aktual'nye problemy potrebitel'skogo rynka tovarov i uslug [Examining influence exerted by basic components in electronic cigarettes on a human body. Vital issues related to consumer goods and services]. Aktual'nye problemy potrebitel'skogo rynka tovarov i uslug: Materialy IV mezhdunarodnoi zaochnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 30-letiyu Kirovskogo GMU. Kirov, 2017, pp. 31–34 (in Russian).
- Salagai O.O., Sakharova G.M., Antonov N.S. Electronic nicotine delivery and tobacco heating systems (E-cigarettes): literature review. Narkologiya, 2019, no. 9, pp. 77–100.
- Bogacheva A.S., Zaritskaya E.V., Yakubova I.Sh., Novikova N.Yu., Laushkin M.A. Kurenie elektronnykh sigaret studentami meditsinskogo VUZa [Electronic cigarettes smoking by students attending a medical HEE]. Profilakticheskaya meditsina – 2019: sbornik nauchnykh trudov Vserossiiskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem. Chast' 1. In: A.V. Mel'tser, I.Sh. Yakubova eds. Sankt-Peterburg, Izdatel'stvo SZGMU im. I.I. Mechnikova Publ., 2019, pp. 75–79 (in Russian).
- Shpak E.I., Galkin A.N., Udal'tsova E.V., Gerasimova T.V. Vliyanie kureniya klassicheskikh, elektronnykh sigaret i kal'yanov na organizm cheloveka, v tom chisle na polost' rta [Impacts produced by classic cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and hookahs smoking on a human body, including the oral cavity]. Aktual'nye problemy meditsinskoi nauki i obrazovaniya: sbornik statei VI Mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii, 2017, pp. 188–192 (in Russian).
- Smith M.R., Clark B., Ljudicke F., Schaller J.P., Vanscheeushhijck P., Hoeng J., Peitsch M.C. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 1: Description of the system and the scientific assessment program. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 2016, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. S17–S26. DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.07.006
- Baidil'dinova G.K., Mukhanova S.K., Sergazy Sh.D., Mikhalovskii S.V., Gulyaev A.E., Nurgozhin T.S. Estimating a probability of reducing risks associated with smoking conventional cigarettes using the THS2.2 (IQOS) technology. Meditsina (Almaty), 2019, no. 2 (200), pp. 42–50 (in Russian).
- Mallock N., Bjoss L., Burk R., Danziger M., Shhelsch T., Hahn H., Trieu H.-L., Hahn J. [et al.].Levels of selected analytes in the emissions of «heat not burn» tobacco products that are relevant to assess human health risks. Archives of Toxicology, 2018, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 2145–2149. DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2215-y
- Helen G.St., Jacob III P., Nardone N., Benowitz N.L. IQOS: examination of Philip Morris International’s claim of reduced exposure. Tobacco control, 2018, no. 27, pp. S30–S36. DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054321
- Zavel'skaya A.Ya., Syrtsova L.E., Levshin V.F. Passive smoking and the risk of cervical cancer. Narkologiya, 2015, no. 11 (167), pp. 52–56 (in Russian).
- Titova O.N., Kulikov V.D., Sukhovskaya O.A. Passive smoking and respiratory diseases. Meditsinskii al'yans, 2016, no. 3, pp. 73–77 (in Russian).
- Pokhaznikova M.A., Kuznetsova O.Yu., Lebedev A.K. The prevalence of passive smoking and other risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Saint Petersburg. Rossiiskii semeinyi vrach, 2015, no. 4, pp. 21–28 (in Russian).
- Mitova M.I., Kampelos P.B., Gujon-Ginlinger K.G., Mader S., Mott'e N., Ruzhe Je.G., Farini M., Triker A.R. Comparison of the impact of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 and a cigarette on indoor air quality. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 2016, no. 80, pp. 91–101. DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.06.005
- Mottier N., Tharin M., Cluse C., Crudo J.-R., Lueso M.G., Goujon-Ginglinger C.G., Jaquier A., Mitova M.I. [et al.]. Validation of selected analytical method using accuracy profiles to assess the impact of Tobacco Heating System on indoor air quality. Talanta, 2016, no. 158, pp. 165–178. DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2016.05.022
- Li H., Luo J., Jiang H., Zhang H., Zhu F., Hu S., Hou H., Hu J., Pang J. Chemical Analysis and Simulated Pyrolysis of Tobacco Heating System 2.2 Compared to Conventional Cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res, 2019, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 111–118. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/nty005
- Protano C., Manigrasso M., Avino P., Vitali M. Second-hand smoke generated by combustion and electronic smoking devices used in real scenarios: Ultrafine particle pollution and age-related dose assessment. Environment international, 2017, no. 107, pp. 190–195. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.07.014
- Moiseev I.V., Podkopaev D.O., Savin V.M., Leznyi V.V., Prikhod'ko R.P., Simdyanova T.P., Moiseyak M.B., Filatova I.A. [et al.]. Sravnitel'nye issledovaniya komponentnogo sostava sigaret i stikov «Parliament» dlya sistemy nagrevaniya tabaka IQOS [Comparative studies on component structure of «Parliament» cigarettes and tobacco units for IQOS tobacco heating devices]. Mezhdunarodnyi industrial'nyi tabachnyi zhurnal «Tobakko-Revyu», 2017, no. 2 (83), pp. 50–61 (in Russian).
- Zaritskaya E.V., Yakubova I.Sh., Mikheeva A.Yu., Alikbaeva L.A. Hygienic assessment of chemical composition of pollutants generated in various ways of consumption nicotine-containing product. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2020, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 638–644 (in Russian).
- Goniewicz M.L., Knysak J., Gawron M., Kosmider L., Sobczak A., Kurek J., Benowitz N. Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes. Tobacco Control, 2014, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 133–139. DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050859
- Schripp T., Markewitz D., Uhde E., Salthammer T. Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping? Indoor Air, 2013, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 25–31. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2012.00792.x