Regulation of work-related and occupational impacts on workers employed at railroads: experience gained in Russia and other countries
V.A. Loginova1, Yu.N. Kas'kov1, E.A. Zhidkova2,3, K.G. Gurevich3, Yu.L. Smertina4, O.A. Pletnikova4
1Federal Service for Surveillance over Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing, Railway transport office, 17 Dubininskaya Str., Moscow, 115054, Russian Federation
2The Central Healthcare Office, a brunch of «Russian Railways» JSC, 52a Malaya Gruzinskaya Str., Moscow, 123557, Russian Federation
3A.I. Yevdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, 20/1 Delegatskaya Str., Moscow, 127473, Russian Federation
4Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology at railway transport, 2 the 1st Basmanniy lane, Moscow, 105066, Russian Federation
The present research is vital as it will allow increasing safety of working conditions for workers employed at railway transport due to reducing impacts exerted by occupational risk factors.
Our research goal was to perform comparative analysis of requirements to labor protection provided for railway workers.
Our research was performed via non-systemic analysis of literature that involved searching through Elibrary, Pubmed and Cochrane databases as per certain key words.
As a result, we showed that railway traffic involved exposure to numerous occupational risk factors; due to it, a significant number of workplaces, including those of enginemen and other railway workers, belonged to the 3rd (adverse) hazard category. Basic occupational risk factors included noise and vibration; psychoemotional loads borne by engine team workers and traffic controllers; exposure to industrial aerosols; electromagnetic irradiation; fluctuations in microclimatic parameters in engines’ cabs. All these occupational factors influence not only workers who are directly employed at railways but also people who live in close proximity to them. Therefore, in most countries there is legislative basis on health protection for people who may be exposed to occupational factors related to railway traffic. Our analysis revealed that in general the existing legislation in Russia corresponded to foreign one. Bases for harmonization of the domestic legislation with foreign one are fixed by the Federal Law issued on December 27, 2002 No. 184-FZ «On technical regulation».
Harmonization of domestic and foreign legislation on reducing total exposure to occupational risk factors allows preserving long-term working ability and preventing work-related diseases.
- Plakhotnik V.N., Lakhnova J.V. Interaction of railway objects with the environment. Environmental Economics, 2002, no. 4, pp. 163–169.
- Klochkova E.A. Okhrana truda na zheleznodorozhnom transporte [Labor protection provided for railway workers]. Moscow, Marshrut Publ., 2004, 412 p. (in Russian).
- Samarskaya N.A. Analysis of the working conditions peculiarities and development of measures to ensure the metro workers safety. Ekonomika truda, 2019, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1271–1284 (in Russian).
- Titova T.S., Kopytenkova O.I., Kurepin D.E. Acoustic impact assessment. Zheleznodorozhnyi transport, 2017, no. 5, pp. 75–77 (in Russian).
- Kurmis A.P., Apps S.A. Occupationally-acquired noise-induced hearing loss: a senseless workplace hazard. Int J Occup Med Environ Health, 2007, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 127–136. DOI: 10.2478/v10001-007-0016-2
- Dobie R.A. The burdens of age-related and occupational noise-induced hearing loss in the United States. Ear Hear, 2008, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 565–577. DOI: 10.1097/AUD.0b013e31817349ec
- Marushkina G.I., Mironova E.A., Plokhov V.N. Otsenka klinicheskoi i farmakoekonomicheskoi effektivnosti preparatov neiromediatornykh aminokislot i ingibitorov kholinesterazy v lechenii khronicheskoi sensonevral'noi tugoukhosti u rabotnikov zheleznodorozhnogo transporta [Assessing clinical and pharmaceutical-economic efficiency of neuromediator amino acids mediactions and choline esterase inhibitors in treating chronic sensorineural hearing loss among railway workers. Vestnik otorinolaringologii: materialy XI Rossiiskogo kongressa otorinolaringologov, 2012, no. 5, pp. 100–102 (in Russian).
- Pankova V.B., Kaptsov V.A., Kas'kov Yu.N. Hygienic substantiation of risk of development of professional relative deafness at workers locomotive brigades. Byulleten' VSNTs SO RAMN, 2006, no. 3, pp. 38–41 (in Russian).
- Vil'k M.F., Pankova V.B., Kaptsov V.A. Traffic noise as a risk factor for occupational deafness (exemplified by air and railway transport). Meditsina truda i promyshlennaya ekologiya, 2017, no. 9, pp. 36–37 (in Russian).
- Girard S.A., Picard M., Davis A.C., Simard M., Larocque R., Leroux T., Turcotte F. Multiple work-related accidents: tracing the role of hearing status and noise exposure. Occup Environ Med, 2009, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 319–324. DOI: 10.1136/oem.2007.037713
- Nunes P.A.L.D., Travisi C.M. Rail noise-abatement programmes: a stated choice experiment to evaluate the impacts on welfare. Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal, 2007, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 589–604. DOI: 10.1080/01441640701322693
- Arezes P.A., Miguel A.S. Hearing protection use in industry: the role of risk perception. Safety Science, 2005, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 253–267. DOI: 10.1093/annhyg/mef067
- Virokannas H., Anttonen H., Niskanen J. Health risk assessment of noise, hand-arm vibration and cold in railway track maintenance. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 1994, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 247–252. DOI: 10.1016/0169-8141(94)90071-X
- Ustinaviciene R., Piesine L. Morbidity of textile industry workers in Kaunas. Medicina, 2007, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 495–500.
- Ustinaviciene R., Obelenis V., Ereminas D. Occupational health problems in modern work environment. Medicina, 2004, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 897–904.
- Sliwinska-Kowalska M., Davis A. Noise-induced hearing loss. Noise Health, 2012, vol. 14, no. 61, pp. 274–280. DOI: 10.4103/1463-1741.104893
- Kas'kov Yu.N. Deyatel'nost' upravleniya Rospotrebnadzora po zheleznodorozhnomu transportu [Activities performed by Rospotrebnadzor Railway Transport Office]. Zheleznodorozhnyi transport, 2019, no. 4, pp. 43–47 (in Russian).
- Kryter K.D. Hearing loss from gun and railroad noise—relations with ISO standard. J Acoust Soc Am, 1991, vol. 6, no. 90, pp. 3180–3195. DOI: 10.1121/1.401427.1999
- Joynt J., Kang J. The influence of preconceptions on perceived sound reduction by environmental noise barriers. Science of the Total Environment, 2010, vol. 408, no. 20, pp. 4368–4375. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.04.020
- Nekrasiene R., Kucinskiene J. Formation of green areas of the Klaipėda city. Urban green formation. Science Jobs, 2011, vol. 1, no. 8, pp. 147–154 (in Russian).
- Lie A., Skogstad M., Johnsen T.S., Engdahl B., Tambs K. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors. Occup Med (Lond), 2013, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 544–548. DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqt114
- Lie A., Skogstad M., Johnsen T.S., Engdahl B., Tambs K. A cross-sectional study of hearing thresholds among 4627 Norwegian train and track maintenance workers. BMJ Open, 2014, vol. 16, no. 4 (10), pp. e005529. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005529
- Rotter T. The noise factor in railway locomotives. Applied Ergonomics, 1982, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 213–215. DOI: 10.1016/0003-6870(82)90014-x
- Seshagiri B. Exposure to noise on board locomotives. AIHA J (Fairfax, Va), 2003, vol. 5, no. 64, pp. 699–707. DOI: 10.1202/532.1.1
- Igolkin A.A., Kryuchkov A.N., Lazutkin G.V., Afanasev K.M. The Study on Vibroacoustic Characteristics of Shunting Locomotive Cabin. Procedia Engineering, 2017, no. 176, pp. 724–731. DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2017.02.320
- Peng Y., Fan C., Hu L., Peng S., Xie P., Wu F., Yi S. Tunnel driving occupational environment and hearing loss in train drivers in China. Occup Environ Med, 2019, vol. 2, no. 76, pp. 97–104. DOI: 10.1136/oemed-2018-105269
- Hahad O., Beutel M., Gori T., Schulz A., Blettner M., Pfeiffer N., Rostock T. [et al.]. Annoyance to different noise sources is associated with atrial fibrillation in the Gutenberg Health Study. Int J Cardiol, 2018, vol. 1, no. 264, pp. 79–84. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.03.126
- Jarosińska D., Héroux M.È., Wilkhu P., Creswick J., Verbeek J., Wothge J., Paunović E. Development of the WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: An Introduction. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2018, vol. 20, no. 15 (4), pp. E813. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15040813
- Clark C., Paunovic K. WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review on Environmental Noise and Cognition. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2018, vol. 7, no. 15 (2), pp. E285. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15020285
- Guski R., Schreckenberg D., Schuemer R. WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review on Environmental Noise and Annoyance. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2017, vol. 8, no. 14 (12), pp. E1539. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14121539
- Grubliauskas R., Strukcinskiene B., Raistenskis J., Strukcinskaite V., Buckus R., Janusevicius T. Effects of urban rail noise level in a residential area. Journal of Vibroengineering, 2014, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 987–996.
- Lie A., Skogstad M., Johnsen T.S., Engdahl B., Tambs K. Noise-induced hearing loss in a longitudinal study of Norwegian railway workers. BMJ Open, 2016, vol. 2, no. 6 (9), pp. e011923. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011923
- Lie A., Skogstad M., Johnsen T.S., Engdahl B., Tambs K. The prevalence of notched audiograms in a cross-sectional study of 12,055 railway workers. Ear Hear, 2015, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. e86–e92. DOI: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000129
- Riesco E., Munoz-Guijosa J.M. An enhanced whole-body vibration emission index for railway vehicles. Ergonomics, 2020, no. 11, pp. 1–11. DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2020.1776899
- Samarskaya N.A., Il'in S.M. Ensuring safe working conditions and health protection of railway workers. Ekonomika truda, 2018, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1329–1345 (in Russian).
- Ishchenko V.I. Uluchshenie uslovii i okhrany truda na zheleznodorozhnom transporte [Improvement of labor protection for workers employed at railways. Put' i putevoe khozyaistvo, 2005, no. 5, pp. 31–34 (in Russian).
- Steina G.J., Múčkaa P., Gunstonb T.P., Badurac S. Modelling and simulation of locomotive driver's seat vertical suspension vibration isolation system. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2008, vol. 38, no. 5–6, pp. 384–395. DOI: 10.1016/j.ergon.2007.08.007
- Tiemessen I.J.H., Hulshof C.T.J., Frings-Dresen M.H.W. Effectiveness of an occupational health intervention program to reduce whole body vibration exposure: an evaluation study with a controlled pretest-post-test design. Am J Ind Med, 2009, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 943–952. DOI: 10.1002/ajim.20769
- Johanning E., Landsbergis P., Fischer S., Christ E., Göres B., Luhrman R. Whole-body vibration and ergonomic study of US railroad locomotives. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 2006, vol. 298, no. 3, pp. 594–600. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsv.2006.06.030
- Cooperridera N.K., Gordonb J.J. Shock and impact levels on North American locomotives. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 2008, vol. 318, no. 4–5, pp. 809–819. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsv.2008.04.042
- Kolesnikov I.V., Pronnikov Yu.V. Experimental research of noise and vibration in cabins of locomotives. Vestnik Rostovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta putei soobshcheniya, 2011, no. 3 (43), pp. 153–156 (in Russian).
- Ohara H., Nakagiri S., Itani T., Wake K., Aoyama H. Occupational health hazards resulting from elevated work rate situations. J Hum Ergol (Tokyo), 1976, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 173–182.
- Orlova N.V., Starokozheva A.Ya. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease among railway locomotive drivers. Meditsinskii alfavit, 2020, no. 2, pp. 37–40. DOI: 10.33667/2078-5631-2020-2-37-40
- Birlik G. Occupational exposure to whole body vibration-train drivers. Ind Health, 2009, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 5–10. DOI: 10.2486/indhealth.47.5
- Orlova N.V., Podzolkov V.I., Starokozheva A.Ya., Doldo N.M., Mironova E.V. Vitamin D deficiency study in railway drivers. Klinicheskaya laboratornaya diagnostika, 2020, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 163–168 (in Russian).
- Finagina E.A., Teodorovich O.V., Tsfasman A.Z., Shatokhin M.N., Shekhovtsov S.Yu. Testosterone level dependence on professional factors (on the example of locomotive drivers). Vestnik novykh meditsinskikh tekhnologii, 2017, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 151–155 (in Russian).
- Jalilian H., Zamanian Z., Gorjizadeh O., Riaei Z., Monazzam M.R., Abdoli-Eramaki M. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Whole-Body. Int J Occup Environ Med, 2019, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 174–184. DOI: 10.15171/ijoem.2019.1688
- Zhang N., Fard M., Bhuiyan M.H.U., Verhagen D., Azari M.F., Robinson S.R. The effects of physical vibration on heart rate variability as a measure of drowsiness. Ergonomics, 2018, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 1259–1272. DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2018.1482373
- Landsbergis P., Johanning E., Stillo M., Jain R., Davis M. Occupational risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among railroad maintenance-of-way workers. Am J Ind Med, 2020, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 402–416. DOI: 10.1002/ajim.23099
- Sharp C., Woodcock J., Sica G., Peris E., Moorhouse A.T., Waddington D.C. Exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments. J Acoust Soc Am, 2014, vol. 135, no. 1, pp. 205–212. DOI: 10.1121/1.4836115
- Murakami Y., Yano T., Morinaga M., Yokoshima S. Effects of Railway Elevation, Operation of a New Station, and Earthquakes on Railway Noise Annoyance in Kumamoto, Japan. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2018, vol. 5, no. 15 (7), pp. 1417. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15071417
- Gidlöf-Gunnarsson A., Ögren M., Jerson T., Öhrström E. Railway noise annoyance and the importance of number of trains, ground vibration, and building situational factors. Noise Health, 2012, vol. 4, no. 59, pp. 190–201. DOI: 10.4103/1463-1741.99895
- Zal'tsman M.D., Tsygankov S.G., Tovasarov A.D., Konyrbaev R.T., Akberliev A.B. Analiz rezul'tatov attestatsii rabochikh mest AO «LOKOMOTIV» po usloviyam truda [Analysis of results obtained via assessing workplaces at «LOKOMOTIV» JSC as per working conditions]. Vestnik Kazakhskoi akademii transporta i kommunikatsii im. M. Tynyshpaeva, 2015, no. 1 (92), pp. 10–17 (in Russian).
- Kabantsev A.A. Nekotorye izmeneniya v konstruktsii elektrovozov 2ES5K «ERMAK» [Certain changes in construction of 2EC5K «ERMAK» electric locomotives]. Lokomotiv, 2017, no. 1 (721), pp. 30–31 (in Russian).
- Aerts S., Verloock L., Martens L., Joseph W. Compliance boundaries for train protection systems. Radiat Prot Dosimetry, 2014, vol. 158, no. 1, pp. 68–72. DOI: 10.1093/rpd/nct183
- Klimchenko L.N., Cherkasova T.S., Chubar' E.P. Prognozirovanie neblagopriyatnogo elektromagnitnogo vliyaniya na ob"ektakh zheleznodorozhnogo transporta [Predicting adverse electromagnetic impacts at railway transport objects]. Vestnik Rostovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta putei soobshcheniya, 2001, no. 1 (5), pp. 126–129 (in Russian).
- Santangelo L., Di Grazia M., Liotti F., De Maria E., Calabró R., Sannolo N. Magnetic field exposure and arrhythmic risk: evaluation in railway drivers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 2005, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 337–341. DOI: 10.1007/s00420-004-0541-2
- Zhidkova E.A., Naigovzina N.B., Kalinin M.R., Gutor E.M., Gurevich K.G. The Analysis of the Causes of Sudden Deaths among Workers of Locomotive Crews. Kardiologiya, 2019, no. 6, pp. 42–47 (in Russian).
- Liu Y.M., Sun H.L., Luo Y., Dong Z.L., Ye W.S.Z. Influence of electric traction extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on immune function of train drivers. Bing Za Zhi, 2008, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 659–660.
- Aerts S., Plets D., Thielens A., Martens L., Joseph W. Impact of a small cell on the RF-EMF exposure in a train. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2015, vol. 27, no. 12 (3), pp. 2639–2652. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph120302639
- Niu D., Zhu F., Qiu R., Niu Q. Exposure to electromagnetic fields aboard high-speed electric multiple unit trains. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents, 2016, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 727–731.
- Röösli M., Lörtscher M., Egger M., Pfluger D., Schreier N., Lörtscher E., Locher P., Spoerri A., Minder C. Mortality from neurodegenerative disease and exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields: 31 years of observations on Swiss railway employees. Neuroepidemiology, 2007, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 197–206. DOI: 10.1159/000108111
- Röösli M., Lörtscher M., Egger M., Pfluger D., Schreier N., Lörtscher E., Locher P., Spoerri A., Minder C. Leukaemia, brain tumours and exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields: cohort study of Swiss railway employees. Occup Environ Med, 2007, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 553–559. DOI: 10.1136/oem.2006.030270
- Schlimp C.J., Breiteneder M., Seifert J., Lederer W. Interference of 16.7-Hz electromagnetic fields on measured electrocardiogram. Bioelectromagnetics, 2007, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 402–405. DOI: 10.1002/bem.20319
- Khudonogov A.M., Volosatov S.N. K kontseptsii proektirovaniya system mikroklimata v kabine upravleniya lokomotivom [On a concept for designing microclimate systems in a locomotive cab]. Transportnaya infrastruktura Sibirskogo regiona, 2013, no. 2, pp. 352–357 (in Russian).
- Serikov V.V., Zhidkova E.A., Kolyagin V.Ya., Zakrevskaya A.A., Bogdanova V.E. Social and psychologic, organizational factors influencing occupational activity of locomotive crew workers. Meditsina truda i promyshlennaya ekologiya, 2017, no. 7, pp. 17–21 (in Russian).
- Dubilei G.S., Zaikina N.V. Professional'naya reabilitatsiya rabotnikov lokomotivnykh brigad [Occupational rehabilitation for engine team workers]. Cardio Somatika, 2013, no. S1, pp. 29 (in Russian).
- Byankina I.N., Panova I.E., Leonova E.S., Pavlenko O.A. Modern trends of ophthalmologic morbidity and visual health state in railway workers responsible for train control system. Permskii meditsinskii zhurnal, 2009, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 127–131 (in Russian).
- Leonova E.S., Byankina I.N., Shchekotov E.V., Karaulovskaya E.A. Results of deep clinical and physiologic study of eye in locomotive operators. Meditsina truda i promyshlennaya ekologiya, 2011, no. 1, pp. 38–42 (in Russian).
- Leonova E.S. Mediko-sotsial'naya i ekonomicheskaya effektivnost' profilaktiki narushenii zreniya u mashinistov lokomotivov [Medical-social and economic efficiency of eye sight disorders prevention for enginemen]. Sbornik nauchnykh tezisov i statei «Zdorov'e i obrazovanie v XXI veke», 2011, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 318–319 (in Russian).
- Farkhatdinov G.A., Kas'kov Yu.N., Podkorytov Yu.I., Svitenko O.A. Aktual'nye voprosy obespecheniya sanitarno-epidemiologicheskoi bezopasnosti passazhirskikh i gruzovykh perevozok zheleznodorozhnym transportom Rossii [The actual problems of supply of sanitarium and epidemiological safety of passenger and goods trans-portation by Russian railways]. Dezinfektsiya. Antiseptika, 2014, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 28–32 (in Russian).
- Kas'kov Yu.N., Podkorytov Yu.I. The actual problems of supply of sanitarium and epidemiological safety of passenger and goods transportation by Russian railways. Meditsina truda i ekologiya cheloveka, 2016, no. 4, pp. 91–97 (in Russian).
- Cha Y., Tu M., Elmgren M., Silvergren S., Olofsson U. Factors affecting the exposure of passengers, service staff and train drivers inside trains to airborne particles. Environ Res, 2018, no. 166, pp. 16–24. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.05.026
- Seaton A., Cherrie J., Dennekamp M., Donaldson K., Hurley J.F., Tran C.L. The London Underground: dust and hazards to health. Occup Environ Med, 2005, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 355–362. DOI: 10.1136/oem.2004.014332
- Leksin A.G. Sanitary epidemiologic safety and technical regulations on railway transport. Meditsina truda i promyshlennaya ekologiya, 2009, no. 7, pp. 17–21 (in Russian).