Markers showing allergic reactions in children caused by aerogenic exposure to manganese and nickel compounds
S.L. Valina1, I.E. Shtina1, O.A. Maklakova1,2, D.A. Eisfel'd1, O.Yu. Ustinova1,2
1Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies, 82 Monastyrskaya Str., Perm, 614045, Russian Federation
2Perm State University, 15 Bukireva Str., Perm, 614990, Russian Federation
High prevalence of allergic diseases among children and their close relation with quality of the environment require new approaches to organizing diagnostic and prevention activities.
Our research objects were 247 children attending pre-school children facilities (PSCF).
It was detected that children who permanently lived and/or attended a pre-school facility for not less than three years under long-term chemical aerogenic exposure to manganese and nickel compounds in low doses (0.17–0.23 MPC average daily) had contents of these metals in their blood that were 1.9–2.0 times higher than the same parameter in children from the reference group and 1.7–2.1 times higher than background level in the region. Pre-school children with their biological media being contaminated with nickel and manganese compounds suffered from atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and bronchial asthma 1.3–4.5 times more frequently (0.23R20.73; 59.2F388.1; р≤0.001).
Allergic diseases associated with aerogenic exposure to chemicals with sensitizing power have certain pathogenetic peculiarities such as active overall inflammatory reaction; sensitization in 54–86% children (the parameter is 1.5–4.3 times higher than in the reference group); cellular metabolism disorder; depletion of antioxidant protection resources in 72% children; deficient activity of phagocytic and humoral section in immunity (1.2 times lower than in the reference group); cytokine regulation disorders (2.4–2.5 time difference); reduced expression of a receptor that induces activation apoptosis; stronger sympathetic influence on heart rate modulation in 26.0% children. Basing on statistical analysis and model making, we determined markers that showed occurring allergic reactions caused by aerogenic exposure to manganese and nickel compounds. These markers are targets for prevention activities; they include growth in allergic pathologies prevalence; these pathologies occurring together with chronic inflammatory-proliferative diseases and disorders in the vegetative nervous system; increased contents of leukocytes, eosinophils, and immunoglobulin E specific to nickel in blood; a decrease in phagocyte number and contents of IgM, IgА in blood serum (0.07≤R2≤0.74; 19.3≤F≤713.2; р≤0.0001).
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