Long use of digital devices as a risk factor that causes myopia occurrence in schoolchildren
O.M. Filkina, E.A. Vorobyova, N.V. Dolotova, O.Yu. Kocherova, A.I. Malyshkina
V.N. Gorodkov's Ivanovo Scientific Research Institute for motherhood and childhood, 20 Pobedy Str., Ivanovo, 153045, Russian Federation
Use of digital devices results in much higher health risks for children caused by greater visual and static loads, low physical activity, intensified intellectual activity, and psychological discomfort.
The article focuses on results obtained in examining reasons why schoolchildren from the 1st, 5th, 9th, and 11th grade use various digital devices, how frequently they do it and for how long they use mobiles, PC, pads, or laptops. All schoolchildren use digital devices, most frequently, mobile phones and PC. Almost ¾ children in the 1st grade use a mobile phone; half of them, a PC, 1/3 use a pad; and each fifth schoolchild uses a laptop. Practically all 5th grade children use a mobile phone; two thirds, a PC; half of them, a laptop or a pad. Also practically all senior schoolchildren use a mobile phone; three quarters, a PC; one third, a laptop; pads are used much less frequently. A number of used digital devices per 1 person grows with age, from 1.8 for 1st grade children to 2.6 for 5th grade children and 2.3 for senior schoolchildren. Average duration of digital devices use per day also grows from 3 hours for 1st grade children to 8.1 hours for senior schoolchildren.
Most schoolchildren tended to have diseases of the eye, namely refraction and accommodation disorders; accommodation disorders prevailed among 1st grade children, and myopia was more frequent among 5th grade children and senior schoolchildren. A number of children with myopia grows by 2.1 times during school years. Relative risk calculation revealed that if digital devices are in use for 6 hours or longer, it results in 1.8 times higher risks of myopia.
- Luk'yanets G.N., Makarova L.V., Paranicheva T.M., Tyurina E.V., Shibalova M.S. Vliyanie gadzhetov na razvitie detei [Influence exerted by gadgets on children’s development]. Novye issledovaniya, 2019, no. 1 (57), pp. 25–35 (in Russian).
- Shabunova A.A., Korolenko A.V. Children's involvement in digital space: gadgetization trends and threats to human development. Vestnik Udmurtskogo universiteta. Sotsiologiya. Politologiya. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2019, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 430–443 (in Russian).
- Korolenko A.V., Gordievskaya A.N. Human potential of the child population: understanding and assessment. Sotsial'noe prostranstvo, 2018, no. 5 (17), pp. 3 (in Russian).
- Ravichandran P., De Bravo B.-F., Beauport R. Young children and screen time (TV, Computers, etc.). Washington, National Center for Health Research Publ., 2019, pp. 223–400 (in Russian).
- Subrahmanyam K., Kraut R.E., Greenfield P.M., Gross E.F. The impact of home computer uses on children’s activities and development. Future Child, 2011, no. 10, pp. 123–144 (in Russian).
- Usol'tseva D.D. Vliyanie sovremennykh gadzhetov na zdorov'e shkol'nikov [Effects produced by modern gadgets on schoolchildren’s health]. Rossiiskaya akademiya estestvoznaniya, 2017. Available at: https://school-science.ru/3/1/32591 (03.06.2020) (in Russian).
- Zubarev Yu.B. Mobil'nyi telefon i zdorov'e: monografiya [A mobile phone and health: a monograph]. 4th edition. Moscow, Biblio-Globus Publ., 2019, 234 p. (in Russian).
- Sundus M. The impact of using gadgets on children. Journal of Depression and Anxiety, 2018, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 3. DOI: 10.4172/2167-1044.1000296
- Woo E.H., White P., Lai C.W. Impact of information and communication technology on child health. J Paediatr Child Health, 2016, vol. 6, no. 52, pp. 590–594. DOI: 10.1111/jpc.13181
- Kuchma V.R., Tkachuk E.A., Tarmaeva I.Yu. Psychophysiological state of children in conditions of informatization of their life activity and intensification of education. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2016, vol. 95, no. 12, pp. 1183–1188 (in Russian).
- Borisova O.S., Sitinova A.A., Duisenbek F.N. Vliyanie komp'yutera na zdorov'e i psikhiku uchenikov [Impacts exerted by a PC on schoolchildren’s health and mind]. Integratsiya psikhologo-pedagogicheskikh nauk i aktual'nykh obrazovatel'nykh praktik: sbornik trudov mezhdunarodnoi studencheskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi ochnoi konferentsii. Moscow, 2019, pp. 43–48 (in Russian).
- Soltan M.M., Titova D.A., Shemetovets T.N. Donozologicheskaya diagnostika bezopasnosti tsifrovoi sredy dlya psikhicheskogo zdorov'ya podrostkov [Pre-nosologic diagnostics of digital environment safety for teenagers’ mental health]. Sovremennaya model' meditsinskogo obespecheniya detei v obrazovatel'nykh organizatsiyakh: Materialy VI Natsional'nogo kongressa po shkol'noi i universitetskoi meditsine. Ekaterinburg, Izdatel'stvo UGMU Publ., 2018, vol. 6, pp. 195–196 (in Russian).
- Galuzo I.V. Nuzhny li mobil'nye ustroistva v uchebnom protsesse? [Are mobile devices truly necessary for educational process?]. Sovremennoe obrazovanie Vitebshchiny, 2020, no. 1 (27), pp. 26–35 (in Russian).
- Abdullina A.M. The impact of computer on sight. Prioritetnye zadachi i strategii razvitiya pedagogiki i psikhologii: sbornik nauchnykh trudov po itogam mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. Moscow, 2017, pp. 37–39 (in Russian).
- San'kov S.V., Kuchma V.R. Hygienic assessment of the impact of the modern schools' electronic information-educational environment on children. Vestnik novykh meditsinskikh tekhnologii. Elektronnoe izdanie, 2019, no. 3, pp. 98–103 (in Russian).
- Platonova A.G., Yatskovskaya N.Ya., Dzhurinskaya S.N., Shkarban E.S., Saenko G.M. Psikhoemotsional'noe sostoyanie shkol'nikov pri ispol'zovanii noutbuka i plansheta v protsesse obucheniya [Psychoemotional state of schoolchildren while using a laptop or a pad in educational process]. Okhrana zdorov'ya i bezopasnost' zhiznedeyatel'nosti detei i podrostkov. Aktual'nye problemy, taktika i strategiya deistvii: Materialy IV Vserossiiskogo kongressa po shkol'noi i universitetskoi meditsine s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem. Sankt-Peterburg, 2014, pp. 262–264 (in Russian).
- Maducdoc M.M., Haider A., Nalbandian A., Youm J.H., Morgan P.V., Crow R.W. Visual consequences of electronic reader use: a pilot study. Int Ophthalmol, 2017, no. 37 (2), pp. 433–439. DOI: 10.1007/s10792-016-0281-9
- Porcar E., Pons A.M., Lorente A. Visual and ocular effects from the use offlat-panel displays. Int J Ophthalmol, 2016, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 881–885. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2016.06.16
- Stepanova M.I., Aleksandrova I.E., Sazanyuk Z.I., Voronova B.Z., Lashneva I.P., Shumkova T.V. Hygienic regulation of the use of electronic educational resources in the modern school. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2015, vol. 94, no. 7, pp. 64–68 (in Russian).
- Kuchma V.R., Tkachuk E.A., Efimova N.V. Hygienic assessment of the intensification of educational activity of children in modern conditions. Voprosy shkol'noi i universitetskoi meditsiny i zdorov'ya, 2015, no. 1, pp. 4–11 (in Russian).
- Kuntysh S.A., Gribushkin I.Yu., Kholopov E.G., Moskalenko M.A. IT tekhnologii v obshcheobrazovatel'nykh uchebnykh zavedeniyakh [IT in secondary schools]. Materialy vtoroi mezhregional'noi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii prepodavatelei matematiki i fiziki pod devizom «Matematika – eto prosto!». Sankt-Peterburg, 2020, pp. 71–75 (in Russian).
- Gaiduchenok A.K. Profilaktika gadzhetozavisimosti i obespechenie bezopasnosti shkol'nikov v internete v rabote shkoly [Preventing gadget-dependence and providing safety for schoolchildren in the Internet used in educational process in school]. Tsifrovaya transformatsiya obrazovaniya: Elektronnyi sbornik tezisov nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. Minsk, 2018, pp. 67–68 (in Russian).