Working out a procedure for determining potentially hazardous volatile organic compounds (trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene) in ambient air
T.S. Ulanova, T.V. Nurislamova, N.A. Popova, O.A. Mal'tseva
Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies, 82 Monastyrskaya Str., Perm, 614045, Russian Federation
The article dwells on results obtained via experimental research on working out a gas chromatography procedure for determining trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in ambient air. Experiments were performed on substances which had low limits of detection with gas-liquid chromatography with electron capture detection (GLC/ECD) when examined substances were absorbed from ambient air on Tenax TA sorbent. Optimal gas chromatography parameters were established with a hardware-software complex based on «Crystal-5000» gas chromatographer and use of a column from IDBPX-VOL series, 60m⋅0.32mm⋅1.8µm, under the following temperatures: column, 50–230о С; evaporator, 250о С; detector, 250о С.
The developed capillary gas chromatography procedure allows determining trichloroethylene in concentrations ranging from 0.000146 to 0.00146 mg/m3, and tetrachloroethylene, from 0.000081 to 0.00081 mg/m3 with inaccuracy not exceeding 25.0%. We performed metrological assessment of the procedure and it allowed determining quality of analysis results for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene; they were as follows: precision, 21.97% and 14.3%: repeatability, 4.22% and 3.38%; reproducibility, 5.66% and 4.9%. Limit of detection (LOD) for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene was =0.0000038 mg/dm3 and =0.00000083 mg/dm3 accordingly. Limit of quantitative determination (LOQ) was =0.000013 mg/m3 for trichloroethylene, and = 0.0000028 mg/m3 for tetrachloroethylene.
The developed procedure allowed detecting contents of the examined substances in ambient air near a construction site and a dry-cleaner’s, trichloroethylene in a range from 0.00001 mg/m3 to 0.0009 mg/m3, tetrachloroethylene, from 0.000011 mg/m3 to 0.00039 mg/m3.
This unified high-sensitive and selective procedure is recommended for systemic control over potentially hazardous volatile organic compounds in ambient air as it allows providing objective and reliable hygienic assessment of chemical safety and quality of the environment and health risk assessment.
- Yudina T.V., Fedorova N.E., Volkova V.N., Volchek S.I. Analiticheskie voprosy laboratornoi praktiki kontrolya pestitsidov [Analytical issues in laboratory practices applied to control pesticides]. Faktory riska i zdorov'e naseleniya v regionakh Rossii: nauchnye Trudy FNTsG im. F.F. Erismana. Lipetsk, 2004, vol. 13, pp. 224–227 (in Russian).
- Rakitskii V.N. Voprosy garmonizatsii metodicheskikh podkhodov v toksikologii [Issues related to harmonizing methodological approaches in toxicology]. Tezisy dokladov vtorogo s"ezda toksikologov Rossii. Moscow, 2003, pp. 219–220 (in Russian).
- Rakitskii V.N. Problems of contemporary hygiene. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2015, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 4–7 (in Russian).
- Rakhmanin Yu. A., Sinitsyna O.O. Status and actualization of tasks to improve the scientific-methodological and regulatory frameworks in the field of human ecology and environmental hygiene. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2013, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 4–10 (in Russian).
- Malysheva A.G, Rakhmanin Yu.A. Fiziko-khimicheskie metody kontrolya veshchestv v gigiene okruzhayushchei sredy [Physical and chemical methods for control over substances in environmental hygiene]. Sankt-Peterburg, NPO «Professional» Publ., 2012, 720 p. (in Russian).
- Doherty R.E. A History of the Production and Use of Carbon Tetrachloride, Tetrachloroethylene, Trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-Trichloroethane in the United States: Part 2--Trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. Environmental Forensics, 2000, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 83–93. DOI: 10.1006/enfo.2000.0011
- Barton C. Tetrachloroethylene. Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 2014, no. 12, pp. 498–502. DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-386454-3.00436-x
- Davydov M.I., Aksel' E.M. Zabolevaemost' zlokachestvennymi novoobrazovaniyami Rossii i stran SNG v 2006 g. [Morbidity with malignant neoplasms in Russian and CIS countries in 2006]. Vestnik RONTs im. N.N. Blokhina RAMN, 2007, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 52–90 (in Russian).
- Uilki Ch., Sammers Dzh., Daniels Ch. Polivinilkhlorid. In: G.E. Zaikova ed. Sankt-Peterburg, TsOP Professiya Publ., 2007, 800 p. (in Russian).
- Karimov F.K. Pathochemistry of toxic effects of chlororganic and aromatic compounds. Meditsinskii vestnik Bashkortostana, 2007, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 76–80 (in Russian).
- Boyer A.S. Trichloroethylene Inhibits Development of Embryonic Heart Valve Precursors in Vitro. Toxicological Sciences, 2000, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 109–117. DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/53.1.109
- Stewart R.D., Dodd H.C., Gay H.H., Erley D.S. Experimental Human Exposure to Trichloroethylene, Archives of Environmental Health. An International Journal, 2013, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 64–71. DOI: 10.1080/00039896.1970.10665543
- Drake V.J., Koprowski S.L., Hu N., Smith. M., Lough J. Cardiogenic effects of trichloroethylene and trichloroacetic acid following exposure during heart specification of avian development. Toxicological Sciences, 2006, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 153–162. DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfl083
- Pezzoli G., Cereda E. Exposure to pesticides or solvents and risk of Parkinson disease. Neurology, 2013, vol. 80, no. 22, pp. 2035–2041. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318294b3c8
- Schlichting L.M., Wright P.F.A., Stacey N.H. Effects of tetrachloroethylene on hepatic and splenic lymphocytoxic activities in rodents. Toxicol Ind Health, 1992, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 255–266. DOI: 10.1016/0887-2333(94)90240-2
- Peers A.M. Method 5: Determination of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in air. IARC Sci, 1985, no. 68, pp. 205–211.
- Rasmussen R.A., Harsch D.E., Sweany P.H., Krasnec J.P., Cronn D.R. Determination of Atmospheric Halocarbons by A Temperature-Programmed Gas Chromatographic Freezeout Concentration Method. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1977, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 579–581. DOI: 10.1080/00022470.1977.10470461
- Begerow J., Jermann E., Keles T., Koch T., Dunemann L. Screening method for the determination of 28 volatile organic compounds in indoor and outdoor air at environmental concentrations using dual-column capillary gas chromatography with tandem electron-capture-flame ionization detection. J Chromatogr A, 1996, vol. 749, no. 1–2, pp. 181–191.
- Karellas N., Chen Q. Real-Time Air Monitoring of Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene Using Mobile TAGA Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2013, vol. 4, no. 8A, pp. 99–105. DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.48A1012
- Rudenko B.A., Zuev B.K., Nikiforov Yu.V., Naida O.O., Shoromov N.P. Chromatographic capillary columns of non-round cross sections. Zhurnal analiticheskoi khimii, 2005, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 729–733 (in Russian).