Working conditions and work-related pathologies at enterprises located in chukotka autonomous area
S.A. Syurin1, A.A. Kovshov1,2
1North-West Scientific Center for Hygiene and Public Health, 4 2-ya Sovetskaya Str., Saint Petersburg, 191036, Russian Federation
1North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, 41 Kirochnaya Str., Saint Petersburg, 195067, Russian Federation
For many years, morbidity with work-related diseases has been higher in Chukotka Autonomous Area (ChAA) than on average in Russia.
Our research objects were working conditions and morbidity with work-related diseases. Our research goal was to examine reasons for work-related pathology occurrence, its structure, and prevalence in ChAA in 2008–2018. We examined data obtained via social-hygienic monitoring in 2008–2018 in Chukotka, paying close attention to a section entitled «Working conditions and work-related pathology».
We established that noise (17.4%) and cooling microclimate (11.8%) were the most widely spread hazardous occupational factors in ChAA. 20.1% workers were exposed to a combination of hazardous factors. 13.5% workers were employed at industrial objects that belonged to the 1st surveillance group (the highest risks); 31.9% worked at economic entities from the 3rd surveillance group (average risks). In 2008–2018 216 work-related diseases were first diagnosed in Chukotka, mostly among workers employed at mining enterprises (81.5%). Sensorineural hearing loss / noise effects in the internal ear (35.2%) and respiratory diseases (31.9%) prevailed in their structure. 73.6% diseases were detected due to patients applying for medical aid themselves. In 2008–2015 there was a steady growth in work-related morbidity (from 1.94 to 13.5 per 10,000 workers), but there was a decrease in it in 2016–2018 (down to 5.11 per 10,000 workers) with considerable fluctuations in numbers of first diagnosed diseases. Risks of work-related pathology occurrence were higher in Chukotka in 2018 than in 2008: OR=2.37; CI 1.82–3.09; χ2=43.8; р<0.001.
To prevent work-related pathology in Chukotka, it is necessary to continue activities aimed at working conditions improvement, in particular, reducing exposure to noise and aerosols with predominantly fibrogenic effects in mining industry in the region.
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