A comparative study of food consumption patterns among children younger than three in Russia and Vietnam

View or download the full article: 

N.A. Lebedeva-Nesevrya1,2, Le Thi Hong Hao3, A.O. Barg1,2, Tran Cao Son3, Bui Quang Dong3, Vu Ngoc Tu3, D.V. Suvorov1


1Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies, 82 Monastyrskaya Str., Perm, 614045, Russian Federation
2Perm State University, 15 Bukireva Str., Perm, 614990, Russian Federation
3National Institute for Food Control, 65 Pham Than Duat Str., Hanoi, Vietnam


The publication presents the results of the exposure assessment within the framework of a joint Russian-Vietnamese study aimed at children’s health risk assessment associated with the N-nitrosamines contamination in food. People who permanently cared for children aged from six months to three years were questioned in two urbanized areas of Vietnam and Russia – in the cities of Hanoi (n=481) and Perm (n=183). It is shown that the structure of food consumption among children up to three years differs significantly. Children’s nutrition in Russia is includes a lot of dry soluble cereals and canned meat/vegetables. The most common product in children's nutrition in Vietnam has no analogues in Russia: it is purchased cereals prepared in specialized stores. Canned foods and dry soluble cereals are also included in the diet of children in Vietnam, but the share of consumers and consumption volumes for them are significantly lower than in Russia. Thus, in the age group of 6–12 months, the share of consumers in Russia is 53 %, in Vietnam – 21 %, the median distribution of average daily consumption in Russia is 152 grams, in Vietnam – 28 grams. Taking into account the share of consumers, as well as the volume and frequency of consumption, we determined the priority products for the children’s health risk assessment associated with the N-nitrosamines contamination in food. They are canned meat and dry soluble cereals in Russia; grilled meat and sausages; in Vietnam.

children, food, consumption, risk assessment, Russia, Vietnam, children’s nutrition, risk assessment, exposure assessment, questioning
Lebedeva-Nesevrya N.A., Le Thi Hong Hao, Barg A.O., Tran Cao Son, Bui Quang Dong, Vu Ngoc Tu, Suvorov D.V. A comparative study of food consumption patterns among children younger than three in Russia and Vietnam. Health Risk Analysis, 2019, no. 4, pp. 77–83. DOI: 10.21668/health.risk/2019.4.08.eng
  1. Global'naya strategiya VOZ v oblasti bezopasnosti pishchevykh produktov [WHO Global strategy for food safety]. World Health Organization, 2002, 34 p. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/85375 (01.12.2019) (in Russian).
  2. Pitanie. Politika [Nutrition. Policy]. Regional office for Europe. World Health Organization. Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/ru/health-topics/disease-prevention/nutrition/po... (01.12.2019) (in Russian).
  3. Infant and young child feeding in South-East Asia Region. WHO South-East Asia. Available at: https://www.who.int/
    southeastasia/health-topics/infant-and-young-child-feeding (01.12.2019).
  4. Pivovarov Yu.P., Milushkina O.Yu., Tikhonova Y.L., Aksenova O.I., Kalinovskaya M.V. Chemical pollution of baby food products in the Russian. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2016, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 707–711 (in Russian).
  5. Bel'mer S.V., Gasilina T.V. Some aspects of hygienic sagety children’s foods. Voprosy detskoi dietologii, 2008, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 27–31 (in Russian).
  6. Setko A.G., Mryasova Zh.K., Tyurin A.V. Risk of health disorders in children caused by consumption of contaminated food products. Health Risk Analysis, 2018, no. 4, pp. 89–95 (in Russian). DOI: 10.21668/health.risk/2018.4.10.eng
  7. Zaitseva N.V., Ulanova T.S., Nurislamova T.V., Terent'ev G.I., Popova N.A., Mal'tseva O.A. Determination of N-nitro-sodiphenylamine in meat canned food for children by the method of chromato-mass-spectrometry. Voprosy pitaniya, 2017, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 56–62 (in Russian).
  8. Luzhetskiy K.P. Methodical approaches to managing risks for endocrine diseases evolvement in children related to impacts of environmental factors occurring on areas aimed for development. Health Risk Analysis, 2017, no. 2, pp. 47–56. DOI: 10.21668/health.risk/2017.2.05.eng
  9. Kleyn S.V., Vekovshinina S.A., Sboev A.S. Priority risk factors of drinking water and the related with it economical loss. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2016, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 10–14 (in Russian).
  10. Istomin A.V., Eliseev Yu.Yu., Eliseeva Yu.V. Conditionality of risks to health of the children's population chemical contamination of foodstuff in the region. Zdorov'e naseleniya i sreda obitaniya, 2014, vol. 251, no. 2, pp. 18–21 (in Russian).
  11. Kozlova A.B., Stokoz S.V. Estimation of the nitrate availability level in vegetables coming to the Blagoveshchensk town market. Vestnik KrasGAU, 2009, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 95–100 (in Russian).
  12. Butakov V.V., Tropnikova V.V. Analiz soderzhaniya nitratov v ovoshchakh, fruktakh i zeleni torgovoi seti Novosibirska [Analysis of nitrates contents in vegetables, fruit, and potherbs sold in retail outlets in Novosibirsk]. In Situ, 2016, no. 3, pp. 20–24 (in Russian).
  13. Zhidkin V., Semushev A. Food contamination by nitrates, pesticides and heavy metals. Predprinimatel'stvo, 2014, no. 5, pp. 190–198 (in Russian).
  14. Zaitseva N.V., Tran Cao Son, Bui Cao Tien, Ulanova T.S., Nurislamova T.V., Maltseva O.A. Comparative assessment of N-nitrosamines' contamination of baby's canned meat with vegetables and cereals by various methods in Russia and Vietnam. Voprosy pitaniya, 2019, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 93–102 (in Russian).
  15. Zaitseva N.V., Ulanova T.S., Nurislamova T.V., Terent'ev G.I., Ershova K.S., Mal'tseva O.A. Control of highly toxic N-nitrosamines (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosodiethylamine) content in baby's cereals. Voprosy pitaniya, 2016, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 82–90 (in Russian).
  16. Do L.M., Eriksson B., Tran T.K., Petzold M., Ascher H. Feeding of preschool children in Vietnam: a study of parents’ practices and associated factors. BMC Nutrition, 2015, no. 1, pp. 16.DOI:10.1186/s40795-015-0011-0
  17. Huang D., Sokal-Gutierrez K., Chung K., Lin W., Khanh L.N., Chung R., Hoang H.T., Ivey S.L. Maternal and Child Nutrition and Oral Health in Urban Vietnam. International Journal of Environmental Researches and Public Health, 2019, vol. 16, no. 14, pp. 2579. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16142579
  18. Natsional'naya programma optimizatsii pitaniya detei v vozraste ot 1 goda do 3 let v Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Press-reliz [National program for optimizing nutrition provided for children aged 1–3 in the Russian Federation. Press release]. Pediatrich-eskaya farmakologiya, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 707–708 (in Russian).
  19. Baturin A.K., Keshabyants E.E., Safronova A.M., Netrebenko O.K. Programmirovanie pitaniem: pitanie detei starshe goda [Programmed by nutrition: nutrition for children after 1 year of age]. Pediatriya. Zhurnalim. G.N. Speranskogo, 2013, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 91–99 (in Russian).
  20. Borovik E., Guseva I.M., Semenova N.N., Zvonkova N.G., Zakharova I.N., Surzhik A.V., Stepanova T.N., Bushueva T.V. [et al.]. Pediatrician and parent opinion on nutrition in infants under 3 years: results of pilot survey conducted in central federal district of the Russian Federation. Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii, 2016, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 358–363 (in Russian).

You are here