Social-hygienic monitoring system updating based on health risk analysis (at the municipal level)
I.V. Tikhonova1, M.A. Zemlyanova2
1Federal Service for Surveillance over Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing, Krasnoyarsk Region office, 21 Karatanova Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russian Federation
2Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies, 82 Monastyrskaya Str., Perm, 614045, Russian Federation
In order to increase efficiency of activities aimed at reducing impacts exerted by leading health risk factors it is necessary to optimize observation over the existing social and hygienic situation within social and hygienic monitoring (SGM). It is also necessary to substantiate reference points where monitoring posts for controlling ambient air quality should be located within zones influenced by industrial enterprises, primarily those ranked as economic entities that could cause extremely high or high potential health risks.
Methodical approaches to optimizing monitoring programs and location of monitoring posts within SGN system at the municipal level were implemented with complex analysis of health risk factors occurring due to economic activities by an enterprise that dealt with alumina production (Achinsk city in Krasnoyarsk region). The analysis included assessing and ranking potential threats to population health, first of all, to the respiratory organs; substances emitted into the atmosphere by the examined enterprise; consolidated calculations of ground concentrations diffusion; instrumental monitoring and field observations; hazard indexes under acute and chronic combined exposure to substances with one-way damaging impacts on the respiratory organs.
The obtained results allowed creating a specific list of admixtures that should be observed systematically (particulate matter, PM2.5 and PM10, formaldehyde, manganese, copper, aluminum, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrofluoride, xylene, and toluene) and periodically (vanadium (V), nickel, and chromium (IV)). We substantiated two reference points where monitoring posts for controlling ambient air quality should be located within SGM system (instead of 5 existing mobile points) with specific fix-up on a territory; these points characterized a zone influenced by an alumina-producing enterprise. Control over ambient air quality at the chosen reference points within SGM does not require any interaction with an economic entity when surveillance and control activities are being performed; it is advisable to apply an extended program for monitoring over ambient air quality at these points and assess residual risks caused by exposure to substances that could be potentially hazardous for the respiratory organs as such risks can occur when an enterprise develops and implements activities aimed at achieving acceptable levels of risks.
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