Nano- and micro-particles concentrations in working area air at galvanic production: pilot research
K.S. Golokhvast1, K.Yu. Kirichenko1, P.F. Kiku1, N.V. Efimova2, M.F. Savchenkov3, I.A. Vakhnyuk1, D.Yu. Kosyanov1, S.A. Medvedev4, V.P. Soparev5, V.A. Drozd1
1Far Eastern Federal University, 8 Sukhanova Str., Vladivostok, 690091, Russian Federation
2East-Siberian Institute of Medical and Environmental Research, 3A, 12A Mikroraion Str., Angarsk, 665827, Russian Federation
3Irkutsk State Medical University, 2 Krasnogo Vosstania Str., Irkutsk, 664003, Russian Federation
4“Izumrud” joint-stock company, 65 Russkaya Str., Vladivostok, 690105, Russian Federation
5“Dalpribor” PLC, 46/50 Borodinskaya Str., Vladivostok, 690105, Russian Federation
Electrochemical processes that involve making protective coats at contemporary galvanic productions are widely spread in various industries. As chemically active solutions and heavy metals are usually applied in galvanic production, it can be ranked among hazardous ones. Our research goal was to examine morphometric parameters of nano- and micro-particles that were detected in working area air at enterprises where galvanic baths and electrochemical processes were applied.
To perform a complex examination of particle-size distribution and concentration of a galvanic aerosol (GA) in working area air, we applied a combined procedure that included:
1) measuring qualitative structure of particulate matter (mg/m3) according to ISO 21501-4 in order to determine con-centrations of РМ0.3, PM0.5, PM1, PM3, PM5, and PM10 with a portable laser meter;
2) measuring mass concentrations of PM10 according to the European Standard for determining particulate matter EN 12341:2014;
3) measuring particle-size structure of particulate matter via deposition with laser granulometry.
Quantities of particles that belonged to PM0,3 fraction were more than 10,000 times higher in working area air inside a galvanic workshop that quantities of those belonging to PM10 fraction. Maximum quantities of particles were detected near a nickel-plating bath. Mass concentration of PM10 fraction amounted to 0.04 ± 0.0001 mg/m3. Contents of particles with their size exceeding 700 µm accounted for 30–90 % of the overall quantities of particles at most examined points; particles with their size being less than 10 µm were detected only in an area where aluminum was being hardened.
Quality of working area air at galvanic production doesn’t fully provide safe working conditions due to ultra-thin fractions prevalence in industrial aerosols; it can result in so called “sub-threshold effects” causing bronchopulmonary diseases.
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