Methodical approaches to selecting observation points and programs for observation over ambient air quality within social and hygienic monitoring and “pure air” federal project
N.V. Zaitseva1, I.V. May1, S.V. Kleyn1, D.V. Goryaev2
1Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies, 82 Monastyrskaya str., Perm, 614004, Russian Federation
2Federal Service for Surveillance over Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing, Krasnoyarsk Region office, 21 Karatanova Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russian Federation
The Federal project entitled “Pure air” is a part of “Ecology”, the National project; its primary goal is to achieve a significant improvement in ambient air quality in cities where at present air contamination and population health risks related to it are the most significant. Activities aimed at improving the ecological situation in these cities are provided with the considerable state investment. Results of systemic instrumental measuring that is performed within state systems of ecological and social-hygienic monitoring are considered to be the most informative and reliable database to assess efficiency of air-protecting activities accomplished within the project. Our research goal was to develop and test methodical approaches to substantiating points and programs for observation over ambient air quality within social-hygienic monitoring. The said approaches were to be tested on concrete examples taking into account the existing ecologic monitoring system. We chose the following objects to test our approaches: two cities out of the priority list, namely Krasnoyarsk and Chita. Systemic observations are performed in both cities. There are data on the structure of emissions from all major contamination sources. In Krasnoyarsk there is an aggregated database that contains data on parameters of emission sources; there was no such database in Chita at the moment our research was accomplished. Given the availability of necessary initial data, we suggested algorithms for creating a system of points where observation posts were to be located and for monitoring programs development. We applied health hazards and health risks as our basic criterion for creating an observation system within social-hygienic monitoring. It was shown that data that were collected at ecologic monitoring posts without any changes in their location could be applied to solve tasks related to assessing and predicting health risks as well as analyzing efficiency of accomplished activities provided that research programs were supplemented with parameters that were priority ones as per health hazards and risks. We developed approaches to selecting points and programs for independent research within social-hygienic monitoring. These approaches involve dividing city territories into specific zones as per potential health hazards (when dispersal is not calculated) or health risk levels (when dispersal is calculated); substantiating a list of priority admixtures taking into account carcinogenic and/or non-carcinogenic hazards and risks as well as results of accomplished instrumental measuring and determining parameters of marker (indicator) enterprises with their emissions making the most significant contribution into air contamination.
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