Comparative assessment of artificial sweeteners toxicity via express biotest
A.V. Samoilov1, N.M. Suraeva1, M.V. Zaitseva1,2, M.N. Kurbanova1, V.V. Stolbova2
1V.M. Gorbatov's Federal Scientific Center for Nutrition Systems, RAS, 78 Shkolnaya Str., Vidnoe, 142703, Russian Federation
2Moscow State University, 12 Bldg., 1 Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
Various food additives are being produced and consumed by population in greater and greater quantities and risks of probable toxic effects exerted by them are growing as well. These additives frequently occur in various combinations in food products and the environment, they can be consumed for a long period of time and produce hazardous mutagenic and car-cinogenic effects. Therefore, it is extremely vital to assess combined impacts exerted by food additives so that their safety would be proven. There are certain advantages related to vegetative test-systems and cytogenetic analysis procedures for biological tests data when it comes to screening for toxic and mutagenic effects produced by chemicals. Allium-test which applies Allium cera bulb onion roots as a test-object is quite distinctive. When compared with other tests that employ animals and various cell cultures, this test turns out to be less complicated and costly and more sensitive as well.
Our research goal was to examine influences exerted by such artificial sweeteners as aspartame and sucralose on living weight gain and mitotic anomalies frequency in apical meristem cells in Allium cera bulb onion roots. We also assessed a synergy effect caused by combined exposure to both these chemicals. We detected that aspartame caused a significant decrease in root living weight against the control while there were no toxic effects caused by sucralose. Maximum toxicity was detected when a test-system was exposed to both artificial sweeteners together and it was considered to result from the above mentioned synergy effect. Chromosome aberrations frequency in test samples differed insignificantly from the control but we also detected authentic changes in chromosome anomalies spectrum in root meristem cells. Disorders in chromosome disjunction and anomalies in the mitotic apparatus were the most frequently registered ones.
- Kirkland D., Gatehouse D. Aspartame: A review of genotoxicity data. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2015, vol. 84, pp. 161–168. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.08.021
- Eriksson Wiklund A.-K., Adolfsson-Erici M., Liewenborg B., Gorokhova E. Sucralose induces biochemical responses in Daphnia magna. PLoS ONE, 2014, vol. 9, no. 4, e92771 p. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.009277
- Durnev A.D., Orishchenko A.V., Kulakova A.V., Beresten' N.F., Seredin S.B. Clastogenic activity of dietary sugar substitutes. Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1995, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 31–33.
- Sasaki Y.F., Kawaguchi S., Kamaya A., Ohshita M., Kabasawa K., Iwama K. [et al.]. The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food additives. Mutat Res, 2002, no. 519, pp. 103–119.
- Rencüzoğullari E., Tüylü B., Topaktas M., Basri I., Kayraldiz A. Genotoxicity of Aspartame. Drug and Chemical Tox-icology, 2004, vol. 3, no. 27, pp. 257–268. DOI: 10.1081/DCT-120037506
- Sharma A., Panwar S., Singh A.K., Jakhar K.K. Studies on the genotoxic effects of sucralose in laboratory mice.
Indian Journal Of Animal Research, 2007, vol. 1, no. 41, pp. 1–8.
- Brusick D., Grotz V.L., Slesinski R., Kruger C.L., Hayes A.W. The absence of genotoxicity of sucralose. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2010, vol. 11, no. 48, pp. 3067–3072.
- Liu C.W., Chi L., Tu P., Xue J., Ru H., Lu K. Quantitative proteomics reveals systematic dysregulations of liver protein metabolism in sucralose-treated mice. J Proteomics, 2019, vol. 196, pp. 1–10. DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2019.01.011
- Lebda M.A., Tohamy H.G., El-Sayed Y.S. Long-term soft drink and aspartame intake induces hepatic damage via dysregulation of adipocytokines and alteration of the lipid profile and antioxidant status. Nutr. Res., 2017, vol. 41, pp. 47–55.
- Shalaby A.M., Ibrahim MAAH., Aboregela A.M. Effect of aspartame on the placenta of adult albino rat. A Histological and Immunohistochemical Study. Ann. Anat., 2019, vol. 224, pp. 133–141. DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2019.04.007
- Solis-Medina A., Martínez-Magaña J.J., Quintanar-Jurado V., Gallegos-Silva I. [et al.] Astrogliosis and decreased neural viability as consequences of early consumption of aspartameand acesulfame potassium in male Wistar rats. Metab. Brain Dis., 2018, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 2031–2038.
- Blaauboer B.J., Boobis A.R., Bradford B., Cockburn A., Constable A., Daneshian M. [et al.]. Considering new meth-odologies in strategies for safety assessment of foods and food ingredients. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2016, pp. 19–35. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.02.019
- Saghirzadeh M., Gharaati M. R., Mohammadi Sh., Ghiassi-Nejad M. Evaluation of DNA damage in the root cells of Allium cepa seeds growing in soil of high background radiation areas of Ramsar-Iran. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 2018, vol. 99, no. 10, pp. 1698–1702.
- Pesnya D.S., Romanovsky A.V., Prokhorova I.M. Working out technique for estimating the influence of UHF-radiation of cell telephones and other devices with EMR RF on organisms in vivo. Yaroslavskii pedagogicheskii vestnik, 2010, no. 3, pp. 80–84.
- Oudalova A.A., Geras’kin S.A., Dikarev V.G., Dikareva N.S. Assessment of cyto- and genotoxicity of natural waters in the vicinity of radioactive waste storage facility using Allium test. Radiation biology. Radioecology, 2014, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 97–106.
- Oudalova A.A., Pyatkova S.V., Geras’kin S.A., Kiselev S.M., Akhromeev S.V. Assessment of cyto and genotoxicity of underground waters from the far Eastern Center on Radioactive Waste Treatment Site. Radiation biology. Radioecology, 2016, vol. 2, no. 56, pp. 208–219. DOI: 10.7868/S0869803116020132
- Pandey H., Kumar V., Roy B.K. Assessment of genotoxicity of some common food preservatives using Allium cepa L. as a test plant. Toxicology Reports, 2014, no. 1, pp. 300–308. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.06.002
- Yildiz M., Evrim S.A. Genotoxicity testing of quizalofop-P-ethyl herbicide using the Allium cepa anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration assay. Caryologia, 2008, vol. 1, no. 61, pp. 45–52. DOI: 10.1080/00087114.2008.10589608
- Tulay A.C., Oslem S.A. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of inula viscosa leaf extracts with Allium test. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2010, vol. 2010, 8 p.
- Loganathan P.K., Natarajan P. G2 studies of antimutagenic potential of chemopreventive agent curcumin in Allium cepa root meristem cells. Facta Universitatis, series: Medicine and Biology, 2008, vol. 1, no. 15, pp. 20–23.
- Fiskesjо G. The Allium Test as a standard in environmental monitoring. Hereditas, 1985, vol. 102, pp. 99–112. DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5223.1985.tb00471.x
- Onwuamah C.K., Ekama S.O., Audu R.A., Ezechi O.C., Poirier M.C. [et al.]. Exposure of Allium cepa root cells to zidovudine or nevirapine induces cytogenotoxic changes. PLoS ONE, 2014, vol. 3, no. 9, e90296 p. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090296
- Kurbanova M. N., Suraeva N.M., Rachkova V.P., Samoylov A.V. Comparative study of indicators of toxic activity in the Allium-test. Agrarnii vestnik Urala, 2018, no. 171 (4), pp. 20–25.
- Leme D.M., Marin-Morales M.A. Allium cepa test in environmental monitoring: A review on its application. Mutation Research, 2009, vol. 1, no. 682, pp. 71–81. DOI: 10.1016/j.mrrev.2009.06.002
- Nunes R.D.M., Sales I.M.S., Silva S.I.O., Sousa J.M.C., Peron A.P. Antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of nature identical and artificial synthetic food additives of aroma and flavor. Braz. J. Biol, 2017, vol. 1, no. 77, pp. 150–154. DOI: 10.1590/1519-6984.12115
- Olusegun E. Adegoke T., Adegoke O.A. Toxicity of food colours and additives: A review. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2015, vol. 9, no. 36, pp. 900–914. DOI: 10.5897/AJPP2015.4385
- Choudhary A.K., Pretorius E. Revisiting the safety of aspartame. Nutr Rev, 2017, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 718–730. DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nux035