Assessing risks of respiratory organs diseases and co-morbid pathology in children caused by ambient air contamination with technogenic chemicals (co-hort study)

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O.A. Maklakova1,2


1Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies, 82 Monastyrskaya Str., Perm, 614045, Russian Federation
2Perm State University, Россия, 15 Bukireva Str., Perm, 614990, Russian Federation


We conducted a cohort study which included 144 children who were divided into 3 groups. The test group A was made up of 47 children who lived on a territory where ambient air was contaminated with benzene, phenol, formaldehyde, and particulate matter. The test group B included 45 children exposed to aerogenic introduction of metals (vanadium and manganese). The reference group was made up of 22 children who lived on a territory which was safe in terms of its sanitary-hygienic state.

It was detected that 87.2 % children aged 4–6 who were exposed to aerogenic impacts by benzene, phenol, formaldehyde, and particulate matter had allergic rhinitis, and two thirds of children with respiratory organs diseases had secondary immune failure. By the first school year, probability of allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, recurrent bronchitis and functional pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract grew by 4.6–7.9 times. When children reached 11–14 years, frequency of chronic diseases in the gastrointestinal tract among them grew by 14.5 times, and probability of secondary immune failure and disorders in the vegetative nervous system was 6.0–6.6 times higher.

It was noted that ambient air contamination with metals resulted in chronic diseases in the lymphoid tissue of the na-sopharynx diagnosed in 65.8 % children; children who were exposed to metals in ambient air ran 1.9 times higher risks of combined pathologies in their respiratory organs and the nervous system. When children reached 7–10 years, probability of allergic rhinitis, pathologies in the lymphoid tissue of the nasopharynx, and functional disorders in the digestive system was 3.9–5.3 times higher. Senior schoolchildren who suffered from chronic respiratory organs diseases ran 2.7–3.0 times higher risks of vegetative dystonia and secondary immune failure.

children, respiratory organs diseases, co-morbid pathology, particulate matter, benzene, phenol, formaldehyde, metals, cohort study
Maklakova O.A. Assessing risks of respiratory organs diseases and co-morbid pathology in children caused by ambient air contamination with technogenic chemicals (cohort study). Health Risk Analysis, 2019, no. 2, pp. 56–63. DOI: 10.21668/health.risk/2019.2.06.eng
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