Hygienic assessment of population health risks caused by combined oral introduction of heavy metals
V.M. Boev, E.A. Kryazheva, D.N. Begun, E.L. Borshchuk, D.A. Kryazhev
The Orenburg State Medical University, 6 Sovetskaya Str., Orenburg, 460000, Russian Federation
There is a pressing issue related to combined oral introduction of heavy metals into a human body with drinking water and food products. It is caused by food products contamination, very high probability that metals migrate into water and plants from soils, ambient air, etc. The research goal was to hygienically assess combined oral introduction of heavy metals with drinking water and food products with subsequent population health risks assessment. The authors analyzed long-term data on structure and volumes of food products consumption and assessed population exposure under combined oral introduction of heavy metals (mercury, cadmium, arsenic, and lead) contained in drinking water and food products. Data were obtained from a regional information social-hygienic monitoring database and a regional office of the Federal Statistics Service. Both regional products and products delivered from other regions (or countries) were analyzed. It was detected that population in the region consumed food products per 1 person a year in a quantity which was by 93 kg higher than on average in the country. Calculated concentrations of the examined substances in food products and drinking water corresponded to hygienic standards. Dairy products had the first rank place as regards a contribution made into the overall exposure to lead, cadmium, and arsenic. The second and the third place belonged to vegetables and melons and grocery respectively. The first rank place as per a contribution made into the overall exposure to mercury belonged to vegetables and melons; the second place, to grocery; the third place, to dairy products. Non-carcinogenic risk assessment revealed that hazard quotients related to heavy metals contents in food products and drinking water were within acceptable risks limits. Total carcinogenic risk (TCR) was unacceptable (1.5Е-03.). A number of additional oncologic diseases in the region could reach 557 cases (during 70 years) under the worst scenario.
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