Peculiarities related to combined effects produced by chemical allergens mixture
V.V. Shevlaykov, S.I. Sychyk
Scientific-Practical Hygiene Center, 8 Akademicheskaya Str., Minsk, 220012, Belarus
Workers employed at chemical productions run risks of occupational allergic diseases with chemical etiology. These risks should be assessed and relevant prevention activities are to be substantiated; in this respect it is vital to reveal essence, peculiarities, and mechanisms of hyperimmune response when a body is exposed to a mixture of chemicals with various allergenic and toxic properties. We performed a series of experiments to examine allergenic properties of 57 various chemical mixtures and their separate components; the experiments involved modeling of intradermal introduction in standard doses into albino guinea pigs (ears) or into white mice (bases of tails), the substances were mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant. The obtained results allowed to reveal that intensity of allergenic activity shown by chemical mixtures was determined both by intensity of allergenic properties possessed by specific components in a mixture and by additivity of their immunomodulating effects under combined exposure. These effects naturally depend on a combination of various allergens in a mixture, their contents and quantitative ratios, as well as occurrence of substances with non-specific adjuvant and toxic properties in a mixture. And combined allergenic effects produced by a mixture of chemicals that contains strong chemical allergens in high quantities tend to enhance hyperergic immune response (potentiating) to weaker allergenic components. Predominantly potentiating combined allergenic effects produced by a mixture of chemicals on a body occur due to interrelated mechanisms of specific (elimination of tolerance to conjugate epitopes and modified carrier protein, occurrence of cross-reactive antigen determinants etc.) and non-specific immune modulation (adjuvant, irritating, and immune-toxic effects produced by chemical components in a mixture).
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