Basic trends in behavioral health risks
V.R. Kuchma, S.B. Sokolova
National Medical Research Center for Children's Health, 1 Bldg., 2 Lomonosov Avenue, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
A scope of research entitled Health Behavior in School-Aged Children [HBSC] allowed to obtained data for further analysis and systematization; there were some basic trends in behavioral risks revealed as a result which were hazardous for health of schoolchildren in Russia aged 11, 13, and 15. We applied data taken from reports on international HBSC research conducted in 1993, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2009, and 2013. All the data were statistically processed with non-parametric analysis. We compared risk factors prevalence among children aged 11, 13, and 15; among boys and girls; over time dynamics; factors revealed in different countries. We detected both age and gender peculiarities in behavioral factors that influenced health; there were also discrepancies in their prevalence taken in dynamics over years and differences between children of the same age living in Russia and abroad. A lot of risky behavioral patterns are more widely spread among boys. Since 1993 there has been a growth in parameters related to risky behaviors among girls in Russia. Over the last ten years there have been positive trends in behavioral risk factors prevalence. However, when compared with their foreign counterparts, Russian teenagers perceive their school environment more negatively; they more frequently tend to estimate their health as "being bad"; they are less satisfied with their lives; they less frequently consume fruit and pay less attention to oral cavity hygiene; they tend to be physically inactive. Risky behavioral patterns such as smoking, alcohol intake, or aggressive behavior, are more widely spread among younger teenagers. When creating programs aimed at establishing healthy lifestyle, it is necessary to take into account age and gender differences, as well as trends related to behavioral risk factors which change over time and which can be objectively assessed with an inter-national questionnaire entitled Health Behavior in School-Aged Children.
- Baranov A.A. Sostoyanie zdorov'ya detei Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Children health in the Russian Federation]. Pediatriya zhurnal im. G.N. Speranskogo, 2012, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 9–14 (in Russian).
- Al'bitskii V.Yu. Zabolevaemost' detei i invalidnost' [Incidence and disability among children]. Rossiiskii pediatricheskii zhurnal, 2014, no. 10, pp. 32–35 (in Russian).
- Goncharova O.V., Sokolovskaya T.A. Morbidity among children aged 0–14 years in the Russian Federation: longitu-dinal and prospective studies. Meditsinskii sovet, 2014, no. 6, pp. 6–8 (in Russian).
- Gudinova Zh.V., Zhernakova G.N., Bolotova S.S., Gegechkori I.V. Assessment of the quality of information on the health of children in Russia: interregional comparisons and classification. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2015, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 77–82 (in Russian).
- Kuchma V.R., Sukhareva L.M., Rapoport I.K., Shubochkina E.I., Skoblina N.A., Milushkina O.Yu. Population health of children, risks to health and sanitary and epidemiological wellbeing of students: problems, ways of solution and technology of the activity. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2017, vol. 96, no. 10, pp. 990–995 (in Russian).
- Cattaneo A., Cogoy L., Macaluso A., Tamburlini G. Child health in the European Union. Luxemburg, European Commission Publ., 2012, 134 p.
- Potrebny T., Wiium N., Haugstvedt A., Sollesnes R., Torsheim T., Wold B., Thuen, F. Health complaints among adoles-cents in Norway: A twenty-year perspective on trends. Available at: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210509 (21.02.2019).
- Kuindzhi N.N., Zorina I.G. Experience of application of social hygienic monitoring in hygiene of children and adoles-cents and the lessons resulting from it. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2012, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 53–57 (in Russian).
- Health 2020: a European policy framework supporting action across government and society for health and well-being.Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2013. Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/199536/Health2020-Sh... (14.04.2019).
- Milushkina O.Yu. Physical Development and Lifestyle of Today’s Schoolchildren. Vestnik Rossiiskogo gosudar-stvennogo meditsinskogo universiteta, 2013, no. 3, pp. 68–71 (in Russian).
- Valeeva E.R., Akberova G.R., Kladov D.Yu., Ziyatdinov A.I. Lifestyle of the students of specialized educational in-stitutions and lyceum. Gigiena i sanitariya, 2014, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 93–95 (in Russian).
- Baranov A.A., Kuchma V.R., Namazova-Baranova L.S., Sukhareva L.M., Rapoport L.M. [et al]. Strategiya «Zdorov'e i razvitie podrostkov Rossii» (garmonizatsiya evropeiskikh i rossiiskikh podkhodov k teorii i praktike okhrany i ukrepleniya zdorov'ya podrostkov): Monografiya ["Health and development of teenagers in Russia (strategy)" (harmonizing European and Russian approaches to theoretical and practical aspects related to protecting and improving teenagers' health): a monograph]. Moscow, Izdatel'stvo «Pediatr» Publ., 2014, 112 р. (in Russian).
- WHO Regional Office for Europe. Health for the World’s Adolescents. A second chance in the second decade. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2012, 36 р.
- Kuchma V.R., Sokolova S.B. Povedencheskie riski, opasnye dlya zdorov'ya shkol'nikov XXI veka [Behavioral health risks for schoolchildren in the 21st century: a monograph]. Moscow, FGAU «NMIC zdorov'ya detey» Minzdrava Rossii Publ., 2017, 170 р. (in Russian).
- Quon E.C., McGrath J.J. Community, family, and subjective socioeconomic status: Relative status and adolescent health. Health Psychol, 2015, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 591–601.
- Ottova-Jordan V., Smith O.R., Augustine L., Gobina I., Rathmann K., Torsheim T. [et al]. Trends in health complaints from 2002 to 2010 in 34 countries and their association with health behaviours and social context factors at individual and macro-level. Eur. J. Pub. Health, 2015, no. 25, pp. 83–89.
- Kim H.H.S., Chun J. Analyzing multilevel factors underlying adolescent smoking behaviors: the roles of friendship network, family relations, and school environment. Journal of School Health, 2018, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 434–443. DOI: 10.1111/josh.12630
- Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from the 2013/2014 survey. World Health Organization. Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Life-stages/child-and-adolescen... (14.04.2019).
- Grjibovski A.M. Analysis of nominal data (independent observations). Ekologiya cheloveka, 2008, no. 6, рр. 58–68 (in Russian).
- Grjibovski A.M. Analysis of ordinal data. Ekologiya cheloveka, 2008, no. 8, рр. 56–62 (in Russian).
- Viner R.M., Ozer E.M., Denny S., Marmot M., Resnick M., Fatusi A. [et al]. Adolescence and the social determinants of health. Lancet, 2012, vol. 9826, no. 379, pp. 1641–1652.
- Költo A., Young H., Burke L., Moreau N., Cosma A., Magnusson J. [et al]. Love and Dating Patterns for Same-and Both-Gender Attracted Adolescents Across Europe. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 2018, vol. 28, pp. 772–778. DOI:10.1111/jora.12394
- Eccles J.S., Roeser R.W. Schools as developmental contexts during adolescence. J. Res. Adolesc, 2011, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 225–241.
- Högberg B., Strandh M., Petersenn S., Johansson K. Education system stratification and health complaints among school-aged children.Social Science & Medicine, 2018, vol. 220, pp. 159–166. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.11.007