Contemporary working conditions and assessment of occupational health risk for workers employed at flour-grinding productions
Т.А. Novikova, Yu.A. Aleshina, A.N. Danilov, V.F. Spirin
Saratov scientific research institute of rural hygiene, 1a Zarechnaya Str., Saratov, 410022, Russian Federation
The paper gives a complex hygienic characteristics of working conditions at typical contemporary flour-grinding productions which deal with grain processing. It is shown that workers who are employed at flour-grinding production and perform their work tasks at all the stages of technological cycle on grain processing are exposed to a set of adverse industrial factors related to their labor process. These factors create hazardous working conditions which are ranked as having the 2nd and the 3rd hazard degree (3.2 and 3.3 categories) as per the Guide Р 2.2.2006-05. Among primary factors which create hazardous working conditions we can mention flour dust; grain dust; industrial noise; adverse microclimate; labor hardness caused by overall high physical dynamic loads borne by arms, body, and legs; a necessity to stay in an inconvenient and forced working posture; constant moving related to maintenance of equipment and control over production processes.
According to the Guide Р 2.2.1766-03, categories of expected occupational health risk for workers are estimated to vary from average (substantial) risk to high (intolerable) one depending on functions performed by a worker. Working area air con-tamination with grain dust and flour dust are considered to be a priority health risk factor for workers employed at flour-grinding production. As we assessed occupational risks as per data obtained during periodical medical examinations, we detected an average authentic cause-and-effect relationship between working conditions factors and respiratory organs diseases (RR = 1.64; EF = 39 %, CI = 0.5–4.5), which meant such diseases were occupationally induced. Basing on the performed research, we developed priority measures which can help to reduce occupational health risks for workers employed at flour-grinding production.
- Gosudarstvennaya programma razvitiya sel'skogo hozyaistva i regulirovaniya rynkov sel'skohozyaistvennoi produktsii, syr'ya i prodovol'stviya na 2013–2020 gody: postanovlenie Pravitel'stva ot 14 iyulya 2012 goda №717. [The state program of development of agriculture and regulation of the agricultural production’s markets, raw materials and food for 2013-2020: Resolution of the government of July 14, 2012 No. 717]. Аvailable at: https://www.ruspitomniki.ru (18.02.2018) (in Russian).
- Maremukov T.A. Issledovanie problem razvitiya zernovykh i zernopererabatyvayushchikh predpriyatii [Research on is-sues related to development of grain and grain-processing productions]. Ekonomicheskii vestnik Rostovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2009, vol. 7, no. 4–3, pp. 112–115 (in Russian).
- Shilov V.N. Sanitarno-gigienicheskie usloviya truda na predpriyatiyakh mukomol'noi promyshlennosti [Sanitary and hygienic working conditions at the enterprises of the flour-grinding industry]. Aktual'nye voprosy gigieny v sel'skokhozyaistvennom proizvodstve: mezhvuzovskii nauchnyi sbornik. Saratov, Saratovskii universitet Publ., 1987, pp. 74–79 (in Russian).
- Dadiani K.P. [et al.]. Gigienicheskaya kharakteristika proizvodstvennoi sredy mukomol'nykh predpriyatii [Hygienic char-acteristics of the production environment of the flour-grinding enterprises]. Gigiena i sanitariya, 1992, no. 11, pp. 45–49 (in Rus-sian).
- Grushko A.B., Latyshevskaya N.I. Sostoyanie vozdushnoi sredy na rabochikh mestakh na predpriyatiyakh mukomol'noi promyshlennosti [Working area air at flour-grinding enterprises]. Problemy okhrany proizvodstvennoi i okruzhayushchei sredy: materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-tekhnicheskoi konferentsii. Volgograd, 1997, 27 p. (in Russian).
- Nemova I.S. Vliyanie neblagopriyatnykh faktorov proizvodstva na sostoyanie zdorov'ya rabochikh mukomol'nogo zavoda goroda Ul'yanovska [The influence of unfavourable industrial factors on the health condition mealing manufacture workers Ulyanovsk-town]. Sovremennye naukoemkie tekhnologii, 2005, no. 2, pp. 78–79 (in Russian).
- Gromova B.C. K gigienicheskoi kharakteristike zernovoi pyli [On hygienic characteristics of grain dust]. Gigiena truda i profzabolevaniya, 1985, no. 3, 33 p. (in Russian).
- Sokolova L., Fedorova M., Macievich L., Nefedova M., Masaeva L. Pleurisies in pulmonology department: of City Clinical Hospital in Moscow. European Respiratory Journal, 2006, vol. 28, pp. 29–57.
- Becklake M.R. Grain dust and health: Occupational pulmonary disease in grain workers: focus on grain dust and health. In: J. Dosman, D. Cotton, eds. New York, Academic Press Publ., 1980, pp. 189–200.
- Fournier E., Tonnel A.B., Gosset P. [et al.]. Early neutrophil alveolitis after antigen inhalation in hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Chest, 1985, vol. 88, pp. 563–566.
- Vasil'eva O.S. Spirin V.F., Velichkovskii B.T. Zabolevaniya organov dykhaniya ot organicheskoi pyli u rabotnikov sel'skogo khozyaistva [Respiratory organs diseases caused by organic dust in workers employed in agriculture]. Professional'nye zabolevaniya organov dykhaniya: natsional'noe rukovodstvo [Occupational respiratory organs diseases: national guide]. In: N.F. Izmerov, A.G. Chuchalin, eds. Moscow, GEOTAR-Media Publ., 2015, pp. 560–574 (in Russian).
- Professional'naya patologiya. Natsional'noe rukovodstvo [Occupational pathology: national guide]. In: N.F. Izmerov, ed. Moscow, GEOTAR-Media Publ., 2011, 777 p. (in Russian).
- Seidov I.M. [et al.]. K voprosu o zagryaznenii okruzhayushchei sredy mukomol'nogo i kombikormovogo zavodov mikroorganizmami bakterial'noi i gribkovoi prirody [On environmental contamination with bacteria and fungi at flour-grinding productions and combine fodder factories]. Materialy V s"ezda epidemiologov i parazitologov Azerbaidzhana, Baku, 1980, pp. 87–89 (in Russian).
- Shevlyakov V.V., Ushkov S. A, Filonov V.P. Osobennosti biologicheskogo deistviya i gigienicheskoi reglamentatsii v vozdukhe rabochei zony muchnoi pyli [Peculiarities of biological effects exerted by flour dust and hygienic standardization of its contents in working area air]. Respublikanskii institut vysshei shkoly, Minsk, 2010, 160 p. (in Russian).
- Вlainey A.D., Topping M.D., Oilier S., Davies R.J. Respiratory symptoms in arable farmworkers: role of storage mites. Thorax, 1988, vol. 43, pp. 697–702.
- May J. Occupational hearing loss. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2000, vol. 37, no. l, 112 p.
- Denisov E.I., Il'kaeva E.N. Shum i risk poteri slukha [Noise and risk of hearing loss]. Professional'nyi risk dlya zdorov'ya rabotnikov (rukovodstvo) [Occupational health risk for workers (guidelines)]. In: N.F. Izmerov, E.I. Denisov, eds. Mos-cow, Trovant Publ., 2003, pp. 114–124 (in Russian).
- Afanas'eva R.F., Burmistrova O.V. Okhlazhdayushchaya sreda i ee vliyanie na organizm [Cooling environment and its effects on a body]. Professional'nyi risk dlya zdorov'ya rabotnikov (rukovodstvo) [Occupational health risk for workers (guide-lines)]. In: N.F. Izmerov, E.I. Denisov, eds. Moscow, Trovant Publ., 2003, pp. 142–149 (in Russian).
- Danilov A.N., Bezrukova G.A., Novikova T.A. Tyazhest' trudovogo protsessa kak determinanta professional'nogo riska zdorov'yu rabotnikov sel'skogo khozyaistva [Work hardiness as a determinant of occupational health risk in agricultural workers]. Meditsina truda i promyshlennaya ekologiya, 2017, no. 9, рр. 59 (in Russian).
- Jin K., Sorock G.S., Courtney T., Liang Y., Yao Z., Matz S., Ge L. Risk factors for work-related low back pain in the People’s Republic of China. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2000, vol. 6, no. l, pp. 26–33.