Foxicological and hygienic assessment of allergenic activity and hazards caused by dry yeast fungi
S.I. Sychik, V.V. Shevlyakov, V.A. Filonyuk, G.I. Erm, E.V. Chernyshova
Scientific-practical Hygiene Center, 8 Akademicheskaya Str., Minsk, 220012, Republic of Belarus
This research significance was determined by the fact that health disorders, mostly allergenic ones and immune patholo-gies, prevailed among workers exposed to native yeast fungi of Saccharomyces cerevisiae L153 strain and dry bakery yeast. We observed apparent shifts and imbalance between humoral and cellular immune system parameters and detected allergenic re-sponses in a body which had occupational etiology. Our research goal was to experimentally determine sensitizing power and allergenic hazards of dry bakery, wine, and spirit yeast fungi. We developed an original technique based on oxidizing hydrolysis which we performed with an organic acid on surface β-glucoside bonds between elementary units of nitrogen-containing poly-saccharide (chitin); the next stage was extraction in alkaline medium, and it allowed us to obtain extracts-allergens out of dry bakery, wine, and spirit yeast fungi with high contents of soluble protein-containing substances. It was quite sufficient for exper-imental modeling of their impacts on a body and detecting peculiarities of their biological effects.
We validated an alternative short-term procedure which includes unified technology aimed at reproducing and objective detection of delayed hypersensitivity during an experiment performed on white mice. This procedure allows to detect allergenic power and allergenic hazard of a biological substance using its soluble proteins-antigens.
Our experiments allowed to reveal that protein-antigen complexes contained in dry bakery, wine, and spirit yeast fungi had high sensitizing powers (allergenic powers) and belonged to the 1st allergenic hazard category (extremely dangerous occupational allergen).
We showed that bakery, wine, and spirit yeast fungi had common antigen immune determinants. It makes body poly-sensitization quite possible under inhalation exposure to them in working conditions and causes high risks of cross allergenic responses in people who contact them.
- Shevlyakov V.V., Filonyuk V.A., Rybina T.M., Chernyshova E.V., Kardash O.F., Erm G.I., Buinitskaya A.V., Studenichnik T.S. Sostoyanie zdorov'ya rabotnikov biotekhnologicheskikh proizvodstv [Health of workers employed at biotechnological productions]. Vestnik Vitebskogo gosudarstvennogo meditsinskogo universiteta, 2014, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 127–138 (in Russian).
- Filonyuk V.A. [et al.]. Osobennosti spetsificheskogo vrednogo deistviya proizvodstvennogo mikrobnogo faktora na organizm rabotnikov biotekhnologicheskikh predpriyatii [Peculiarities of specific adverse effects exerted by occupational microbe factors on workers employed at biotechnological productions]. Donozologiya i zdorovyi obraz zhizni, 2015, vol. 1, no. 16, pp. 35–41 (in Russian).
- Filonyuk V.A., Shevlyakov V.V., Dudchik N.V. Metodologiya gigienicheskogo reglamentirovaniya mikrobnykh preparatov i razrabotki metodik vypolneniya izmerenii soderzhaniya mikroorganizmov v vozdukhe rabochei zony [Procedures for hygienic standardization of microbe preparations and development of techniques for microorganisms contents measuring in working area air]. Minsk, BelNIIT «Transtekhnika» Publ., 2018, 264 p. (in Russian).
- Shevlyakov V.V. [et al.]. Trebovaniya k postanovke toksikologo-allergologicheskikh issledovanii pri gigienicheskom normirovanii beloksoderzhashchikh aerozolei v vozdukhe rabochei zony: metod. ukazaniya № 11-11-10-2002 [Requirements to toxicological and allergic examination procedures in creating hygienic standards for protein-containing aerosols in working area air: methodological guidelines No. 11-11-10-2002]. Sbornik ofitsial'nykh dokumentov po meditsine truda i proizvodstvennoi sanitarii. Minsk, Biznesofset Publ., 2004, part XIV, pp. 4–49 (in Russian).
- Fradkin V.A. Allergeny [Allergens]. Moscow, Meditsina Publ., 1978, pp. 76–79 (in Russian).
- Shevlyakov V.V., Filonyuk V.A., Erm G.I. Laboratornyi metod polucheniya i otsenka effektivnosti primeneniya v allergodiagnostike test-allergena iz promyshlennogo shtamma drozhzhevykh gribov Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Laboratory method for obtaining and estimation of efficiency of the application in the allergological diagnostics test-allergen from an industrial strain of yeast fungi saccharomyces cerevisiae]. Mediko-biologicheskie problemy zhiznedeyatel'nosti, 2015, vol. 2, no. 14, pp. 94–100 (in Russian).
- Vershigora A.E. Mikrobnaya allergiya [Microbe allergy]. Kiev, Zdorovya Publ., 1971, pp. 87–96 (in Russian).
- Sokolovskii V.V., Pavlova G.N., Shleikin A.G. Kolichestvennoe opredelenie belka BVK v vozdukhe i stochnykh vodakh [Quantitative determination of protein-vitamin concentrate in the air and sewage]. Gigiena i sanitariya, 1980, no. 4, pp. 75–77 (in Russian).
- Shevlyakov V.V. [et al.]. Klassifikatsiya i perechen' allergoopasnykh dlya cheloveka promyshlennykh veshchestv, osnovnye mery profilaktiki: rukovodstvo R 11-11-11 RB 02 [Classification and list of industrial substances which are hazardous for human health and basic prevention activities: Guide No. 11-11-11 RB 02]. Sbornik ofitsial'nykh dokumentov po meditsine truda i proizvodstvennoi sanitarii. Minsk, Biznesofset Publ., 2003, part XI, pp. 94–126 (in Russian).
- Gad S.C., Dunn B.J., Dobbs D.W. Development and validation of on alternаtive dermal sensitization test: the mouse ear swelling test (MEST). Toxicol. and Appl. Pharmacol, 1986, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 93–114.
- Chernousov A.D. Metod opredeleniya allergennoi aktivnosti nizkomolekulyarnykh khimicheskikh veshchestv na myshakh [A procedure to determine allergenic power of low-molecular chemicals on mice]. Gigiena truda i professional'naya patologiya, 1987, no. 5, pp. 45–47 (in Russian).
- Alekseeva O.G. Immunologiya professional'nykh khronicheskikh bronkholegochnykh zabolevanii [Immunology of occupational chronic bronchopulmonary diseases]. Moscow, Meditsina Publ., 1987, 224 p. (in Russian).
- Rukavishnikov V.S., Sosedova L.M. Mediko-gigienicheskie problemy promyshlennoi biotekhnologii [Medical and hygienic problems related to industrial biotechnologies]. Irkutsk, NTsRVKh SO RAMN Publ., 2012, pp. 87–89 (in Russian).