Assessment of health risk caused by phthalates penetrating a body with milk in polymer and polymer-containing package
S.E. Zelenkin1, P.Z. Shur1, T.S. Ulanova1, T.D. Karnazhitskaya1, V.A. Khoroshavin2, V.M. Ukhabov3
1Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies, 82 Monastyrskaya Str., Perm, 614045, Russian Federation
2Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in Perm region, 50A Kuybyisheva Str., Perm, 614016, Russian Federation
3Perm State Medical University named after Academician E.A. Wagner, 26 Petropavlovskaya Str., Perm, 614000,Russian Federation
Since the middle of the 20th century phthalates have been widely used in food products package manufacturing. But here phthalates turned out to migrate from this package into the environment. There are some data on unfavorable impacts exerted by orally introduced phthalates on the liver and hormonal system.
Milk packed in polymer package which contains various plasticizers including phthalates is widely spread on the Russian consumer market. It determined our research goal which was to assess consumers health risks related to impacts exerted by phthalates introduced with milk packed in polymer package.
We selected 25 milk samples out of milk products bought in retail networks. Phthalates were quantitatively determined in milk via highly efficient liquid chromatography. We performed a distribution questioning to assess quantity and volumes in which milk was consumed and to determine a share of milk packed in polymer package. We detected that 57% adult respondents, 75% children aged 4-6, and 80% children aged 7-17 consumed milk packed in polyethylene film and (or) in plastic bottles. 5 phthalate forms were identified in consumed milk. Adults actually consumed 0.6 liter of milk per day; children aged 4-6, 0.2 liter; children aged 7-17, 0.3 liter. Phthalates dose introduced daily with milk was equal to 5.6110-2 mg/kg of body weight for children aged 4-6; 6.3210-2 mg/kg of body weight for children aged 7-17; 4.20*10-2 mg/kg of body weight for adults.
We calculated a lifelong risk and revealed that it occurred due to di-2-ethylexylphthalate when milk packed in polyethylene film and plastic bottles was consumed. Risk-characterizing hazard indexes reached 1.85 for the liver and endocrine system regardless of package.
- Frederiksen H., Skakkebaek N.E., Andersson A.M. Metabolism of phthalates in humans. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 2007, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 899–911.
- Sherwin K., May J. Hepatic Effects of a Phthalate Ester Plasticizer Leached from PoIy(vinyl Chloride) Blood Bags Following Transfusion. Environmental Health Perspectives, 1982, vol. 45, pp. 57–64.
- Ito Y., Yamanoshita O., Asaeda N., Tagawa Y., Lee C.H., Aoyama T., Ichihara G., Furuhashi K., Kamijima M., Gonzalez F.J., Nakajima T. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate induces hepatic tumorigenesis through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-independent pathway. J. Occup. Health., 2007, no. 49, pp. 172–182.
- Selenskas S., Teta M.J., Vitale J.N. Pancreatic cancer among workers processing synthetic resins. Am. J. Ind. Med., 1995, no. 28, pp. 385–398.
- E.L. Aschim, T.B. Haugen, S. Tretli, A.K. Daltveit [et al.]. Risk factors for hypospadias in Norwegian boys – association with testicular dysgenesis syndrome? Int. J. Androl., 2004, no. 27, pp. 213–221.
- Skakkebaek N.E., Jørgensen N., Main K.M., Rajpert-De Meyts E. [et al.]. Is human fecundity declining? Int. J. Androl., 2006, no. 29, pp. 2–11.
- Toppari J., Larsen J.C., Christiansen P., Giwercman A. [et al.]. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens. Environ. Health Perspect., 1996, no. 104, pp. 741–803.
- Skakkebaek N.E., Rajpert-DeMeyts E., Main K.M. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: An increasingly com-mon developmental disorder with environmental aspects. Hum. Reprod., 2001, no.16, pp. 972–978.
- Huang P.C., Kuo P.L., Guo Y.L., Liao P.C., Lee C.C. Associations between urinary phthalate monoesters and thyroid hormones in pregnant women. Hum. Reprod., 2007, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 2715–2722.
- Ventrice P., Ventrice D., Russo E., De Sarro G. Phthalates: European regulation, chemistry, pharmacoki-netic and related toxicity. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology, 2013, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 88–96.
- Fromme H., Gruber L., Schlummer M., Wolz G., Boehmer S., Angerer J., Mayer R., Liebl B., Bolte G. Intake of phthalates and di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate: results of the integrated exposure assessment survey based on duplicate diet samples and biomonitoring data. Environment International, 2007, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1012–1020.
- Wormuth M., Scheringer M., Vollenweider M., Hungerbuhler K. What are the sources of exposure to eight frequently used phthalic acid esters in Europeans? Risk Analysis, 2006, vol.26, no. 3, pp. 803–824.
- Ratsion pitaniya naseleniya 2013: statisticheskii sbornik [Population diet 2013: Statistical compilation]. Moscow, 2016, 220 p. (in Russian).
- Xu-Liang Cao. Phthalate Esters in Foods: Sources, Occurrence, and Analytical Methods. Comprehensive Reviews In Food Science And Food Safety, 2010, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 21–43. DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2009.00093.x
- Spillmann M.D., Siegrist M., Keller C., Wormuth M. Phthalate exposure through food and consumers’ risk perception of chemicals in food. Risk Analysis, 2009, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1170–1181. DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2009.01233.x
- Rukovodstvo po otsenke riska dlia zdorov'ia naseleniia pri vozdeistvii khimicheskikh veshchestv, zagriaz-niaiushchikh sredu obitaniia R 184.108.40.206-1920-04 [Guide to health risk assessment when exposed to chemicals pol-luting the environment 220.127.116.110-04 P]. Moscow, Federal'nyi tsentr gossanepidnadzora Minzdrava Rossii Publ., 2004, 143 p. (in Russian).