Contemporary problems of health protection for workers employed at a large industrial enterprise and working under occupational hazards
E.Ya. Titova, S.A. Golub'
Perm State Medical University named after Academician E.A. Wagner, 26 Petropavlovskaya Str., Perm, 614000, Russian Federation
We examined data provided by a healthcare facility at a large industrial enterprise focusing on occupational morbidity dynamics over 2013-2016 and periodical medical examinations results obtained in 2015 and 2016. We created a specialized program and applied it to conduct sociological research on health of workers who has a periodical medical examination. We detected that most questioned workers (50.48 %) whose occupations were associated with dangerous and hazardous occupa-tional factors were poorly aware of occupational diseases prevention and needed relevant knowledge. It is shown that over 2013–2016 occupational morbidity decreased from 9.38 cases per 10,000 workers to 3.55 cases. However, it remained higher that in Russian and Perm region on average.
All occupational diseases were detected in workers older than 40 with their working record being longer than 15 years. A share of people able to work with certain limitations grew in 2016 in comparison with 2015 (from 7.35 to 9.31 %); a number of people who needed sanatorium-resort therapy also grew from 19.96 to 32.12 %; a number of people with general somatic diseases increased from 31.23 to 70.17 %); health index reduced from 38.77 to 29.82 %. Musculoskeletal system diseases, con-nective tissue diseases, circulatory system diseases, eye and its accessory apparatus diseases, respiratory organs diseases, and digestive organs diseases prevailed in general somatic morbidity structure. We registered a substantial growth in hearing organs diseases (mostly hearing loss, from 49.47 to 99.06 cases per 100 examined); skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases (from 7.73 to 36.3 cases per 100 examined); urinary system diseases (from 68.42 to 100.62 cases per 100 examined). We detected that most examined workers pursued unhealthy lifestyle. For example, 29.9 % often consumed strong spirits (equally men and women), and 72.8 % smoked. All the respondents tended to have low physical activity. We also revealed some drawbacks in periodical medical examinations procedure: 26.3% respondents mentioned medical staff were indifferent and even rude to them; 40.8 % complained on having to wait for a long time to get to a specialist; 26.2 % said they had to wait for a reception in rather unfavorable conditions; all the respondents mentioned untimely receipt of their "health passport".
The data we collected can be applied in assessing risks of health disorders occurrence in workers employed at industrial enterprises and in the process of creating prevention activities aimed at health risks minimization.
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