Risk factors causing evolvement of alimentary-dependent diseases in specific groups of workers employed at metallurgy production and prevention meausres development
Yu.V. Danilova1, D.V. Turchaninov2, V.M. Efremov3
1 South-Urals State Medical University, 64 Vorovskogo Str., Chelyabinsk, 454092, Russian Federation
2 Omsk State Medical University Russian Ministry of Health, 12 Lenin Str., Omsk, 644099, Russian Federation
3 Administration of the Federal Supervision Service for Consumer’s Rishts Profection and Human Welfare in the Chelyabinsk region, 73 Elkina Str., Chelyabinsk, 454092, Russian Federation
The article gives the results of hygienic and epidemiologic research of morbidity, nutrition structure, food stuffs safety, working conditions, and actual nutrition of workers employed at metallurgy productions. The research was carried out at "Magnitogorskiy metallurgy plant" PLC. 1208 steel workers and founders made up the main group. Average age of research participants amounted to 40.0 ± 0.75. The sampling was representative. We studied actual nutrition over 2010–2015 via analyzing food consumption frequency and applying extended base of food stuffs chemical structure and analyzing menus with lists of dishes offered for an organized group nutrition. We assessed both qualitative and quantitative parameters, including consumption of basic nutrients, energy, irreplaceable amino acids, lipids, vitamins, dietary fiber, essential and conditionally essential microbiological elements (60 nutrients totally, allowing for losses on a product peeling, edible contents, and other losses occurring at various treatments during cooking). We also assessed nutrition regime and other nutrition features. We detected that ratio between proteins, fats and carbohydrates was the evidence of mostly fat nutrition type. Workers were found to consume insufficient quantity of certain vitamins (A, D, and folic acid) and biological elements (calcium), but they instead consumed excessive quantities of saturated fats and common salt. It is shown that actual nutrition of specific workers' groups at metallurgy production is not rational, imbalanced, and doesn't satisfy body needs causing risks of nutrition state shifts and alimentary-dependent diseases evolvement. Alimentary-dependent diseases on average amounted to 21.6 % in the total morbidity structure in 2010–2015. 10.0 % of all diseases with temporary working disability are diseases determined by mostly nutrition factor. Epidemiologic analysis of morbidity comprising diseases related to non-rational nutrition enabled us to determine priority nosologies, risk groups and risk factors.
We have the grounds for hygienic recommendations aimed at correcting nutrition structure depending on detected deviations.
- Dotsenko V.A., Bondarev G.I., Martinchik A.N. Organizatsiya lechebno-profilakticheskogo pitaniya [Organization of preventive nutrition]. Moscow, Meditsina Publ., 1987, 212 p. (in Russian).
- Egorova A.M. Organizatsiya kompleksnoi profilaktiki mochekamennoi bolezni u rabochikh v chernoi me-tallurgii [The organization of the comprehensive prevention of urolithiasis among ferrous metallurgy workers]. Problemy sotsial'noi gigieny, zdravookhraneniya i istorii meditsiny, 2009, no. 2, pp. 40–41 (in Russian).
- Istomin A.V., Saarkoppel' L.M., Yatsyna I.V. Gigienicheskie problemy korrektsii faktora pitaniya u rabo-tayushchikh vo vrednykh usloviyakh [Hygienic issues of nutrition factor correction for people working in hazardous conditions]. In: akademik RAN V.N. Rakitskogo, ed. Moscow, Dashkov i K Publ., 2015, 186 p. (in Russian).
- Korabel'nikova I.V., Baturin A.K. Analiz vzaimosvyazi obraza zhizni, ratsiona pitaniya i antropometri-cheskikh dannykh s sostoyaniem zdorov'ya lits, rabotayushchikh v usloviyakh osobo vrednogo proizvodstva [Analysis of interrelation between lifestyle, diet and anthropometrical characteristics and health of persons, working in the conditions of especially harmful production]. Voprosy pitaniya, 2013, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 74–78. (in Russian).
- Beketova N.A., Morozova P.N., Kosheleva O.V., Vrzhesinskaya O.A., Pereverzeva O.G., Kodentsova V.M., Strakhova L.A., Blinova T.V., Vasil'ev A.V. Obespechennost' vitaminami i kharakter pitaniya rabotnikov metallurgicheskogo proizvodstva (Nizhnii Novgorod) [Vitamins provision and nutrition features of workers employed at metallurgy production (Nizhniy Novgorod)]. Voprosy pitaniya, 2016, vol. 85, no. S2, pp. 84, (in Rus-sian).
- Bazarova E.L., Osherov I.S., Tartakovskaya L.Ya., Fedoruk A.A., Oranskii I.E. Opyt realizatsii programmy «Zdorovoe pitanie» na metallurgicheskom predpriyatii [Experience of implementation of a «Healthy eating» program at the metallurgical plant]. Vestnik Ural'skoi meditsinskoi akademicheskoi nauki, 2015, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 95–98 (in Russian).
- Izmerov N.F., Bukhtiyarov I.V., Prokopenko L.V., Kuz'mina L.P. Sberezhenie zdorov'ya rabotayushchikh i prediktivno-preventivno-personifitsirovannaya meditsina [Protecting health of workers and predictive preventive personified medicine]. Meditsina truda i promyshlennaya ekologiya, 2013, no. 6, pp. 7–12 (in Russian).
- Trikhina V.V., Lazarevich E.L., Vekovtsev A.A. Razrabotka programmy i metodicheskikh rekomendatsii dlya korrektsii pitaniya rabochikh metallurgicheskikh predpriyatii [Development of the program and methodical recommendations to correct nutrition of workers of metallurgical enterprises]. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya pishchevykh proizvodstv, 2015, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 97–102 (in Russian).
- Trikhina V.V., Mayurnikova L.A., Novoselov S.V. Integrirovannyi metod razrabotki spetsializirovannykh produktov dlya korrektsii pitaniya personala, rabotayushchego vo vrednykh usloviyakh truda [The integrated me-thod of development of specialized products for the correction of nutrition of personnel working in hazardous con-ditions]. Vestnik Yuzhno-Ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Pishchevye i biotekhnologii, 2015, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 94–106 (in Russian).
- Tursunbaev A.K. Gigienicheskoe obosnovanie ispol'zovaniya lechebno-profilakticheskogo pitaniya dlya rabotnikov Almalykskogo gorno-metallurgicheskogo kombinata, podvergayushchikhsya vozdeistviyu vrednykh faktorov proizvodstva [Gygienic substantiation of osing medicinal nutrition for employees for Almalyk mining and smelting plant exposed to harmful industrial factors]. Voprosy pitaniya, 2009, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 59–63 (in Russian).
- Turchaninov D.V., Vil'ms E.A., Boyarskaya L.A. Kontseptsiya razrabotki sistemy upravleniya patologiei, svyazannoi s neratsional'nym pitaniem, i napravleniya ee vnedreniya [Concept of working out system to manage pathology related to non-rational nutrition and implementation guidelines]. Informatika i sistemy upravleniya, 2009, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 152–154 (in Russian).
- Castro M.B., Anjos L.A., Lourenço P.M. Dietary pattern and nutritional status of metalworkers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cad. Saude. Publica, 2004, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 926–934.
- Kim H.S., Lee S.S., Hwangbo Y., Ahn K.D., Lee B.K. Cross-sectional study of blood lead effects on iron status in Korean lead workers. Nutrition, 2003, vol. 19, no. 7–8, pp. 571–576.
- Reime B., Novak P., Born J., Hagel E., Wanek V. Eating habits, health status, and concern about health: a study among 1641 employees in the German metal industry. Prev. Med., 2000, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 295–301.
- Xie Z., Lin H., Fang R., Shen W., Li S., Chen B. Effects of a fruit-vegetable dietary pattern on oxidative stress and genetic damage in coke oven workers: a cross-sectional study. Environ. Health, 2015, vol. 14, no. 40. DOI: 10.1186/s12940-015-0028-5.
- Morikawa Y., Miura K., Sasaki S., Yoshita K., Yoneyama S., Sakurai M., Ishizaki M., Kido T., Naruse Y., Suwazono Y., Higashiyama M., Nakagawa H. Evaluation of the effects of shift work on nutrient intake: a cross-sectional study. Journal Occup Health, 2008, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 270–278.
- Huang P., Huang B., Weng H., Nakayama K., Morimoto K. Prev Effects of lifestyle on micronuclei fre-quency in human lymphocytes in Japanese hard-metal workers. Med., 2009, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 383–388. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.12.023.