Hygienic assessment of priority risk factors of environment and health condition of the population of Moscow
E.E. Andreeva1, G.G. Onishсhenko2,5 S.V. Kleyn3,4
1 Administration of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare in Moscow, 4/9 Grafsky Pereulok, Moscow, 129626, Russian Federation
2 Russian Academy of Sciences, 32a Leninsky prospect, Moscow, 119334, Russian Federation
3 FBSI “Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies”, 82 Monastyrskaya St., Perm, 614045, Russian Federation
4 FBSEI HPE “Perm State National Research University”, 15 Bukireva St., Perm, 614990, Russian Federation
5I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 8 Trubetskaya Str., build. 2, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
The article describes the results of work on the dual hygienic assessment of priority risk factors of the environment and the health condition of the population of Moscow. It is shown that in the territory of the metropolis the impact of conditions of negative factors on human health is retained. These trends are confirmed by the excess of the hygienic standards of pollutants in ambient air (up to 6.6 TLVc.e.), by the substantial increase (up to 65.8 %) of share of the centralized sources of water supply, water quality does not meet the hygienic standards due to the high level of non-standard samples of soil (more than 50 % on a number of sanitary-chemical and microbiological parameters in the territories of certain administrative districts). At the same time there is a tendency to a decrease in non-standard drinking water samples taken from the distribution network of centralized drinking water supply (from 4.36 % to 2.45 %). It was established that the primary morbidity have a number of positive trends to decrease, but exceeds the average indicators for individual classes and nosology, including the classes of "Respiratory diseases", "Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue", "Neoplasms" and etc. by 4.1–68.3 %. Analysis of causality (about 50 significant biologically-based mathematical models were received) on the system of "quality of habitat (a risk factor) – health status (morbidity, mortality) " showed that the impact of negative environmental factors probably shape up to 29.2 ‰ of additional cases and up to 0.056 ‰ of the additional deaths per year. The largest contribution to the formation of the probability of additional cases is made by the excess of morbidity by hygienic standards of air quality and soil, mortality and air quality. Risk factors are phenol, benzo a pyrene, nitrogen dioxide, suspended solids, ammonia, chlorine and its compounds, and sulfur dioxide, etc., coming from the atmospheric air, and cadmium, microbiological agents, radioactive substances contained in the soil.
- Onishсhenko G.G., Zaitseva N.V., May I.V. [et al]. Analiz riska zdorov'ju v strategii gosudarstvennogo so-cial'no-jekonomicheskogo razvitija: monografija. In: G.G. Onishсhenko, N.V. Zaitseva eds. Moscow, Perm: Izd-vo Perm. nac. issled. politehn. un-ta, 2014, 738 p. (in Russian).
- Kleyn S.V., Vekovshinina S.A., Sboev A.S. Prioritetnye faktory riska pit'evoj vody i svjazannyj s jetim je-konomicheskij ushherb [Priority risk factors of drinking water and the related with it economical loss]. Gigiena i sanitarija, 2016, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 10–14 (in Russian).
- Rukovodstvo po kontrolju zagrjaznenija atmosfery. RD 52.04.186-89 [Manual control of air pollution. RD 52.04.186-89]. Moscow, 1991. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200036406 (30.08.2016) (in Russian).
- Rejting gorodov mira po urovnju bezopasnosti v 2015 godu (Economist Intelligence Unit) [Rating of cities on the level of security in the world in 2015 (Economist Intelligence Unit)]. Centr gumanitarnyh tehnologij: Infor-macionno-analiticheskij portal. Available at: http://gtmarket.ru/news/2015/01/26/7064 (29.08.2016) (in Russian).
- O sostojanii okruzhajushhej sredy v gorode Moskve v 2014 godu: Doklad [On the state of the environ-ment in the city of Moscow in 2014: Report]. In: A.O. Kul'bachevskogo eds. Moscow: DPiOOS; NIA-Priroda, 2015, 384 p. (in Russian).
- O sostojanii sanitarno-jepidemiologicheskogo blagopoluchija naselenija v gorode Moskve v 2014 godu: Gosudarstvennyj doklad [On the state of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population in the city of Moscow in 2014: State Report]. Moscow: Upravlenie Rospotrebnadzora po g. Moskva, 2015, 233 p. (in Russian).
- O sostojanii sanitarno-jepidemiologicheskogo blagopoluchija naselenija v Rossijskoj Federacii v 2013 godu: Gosudarstvennyj doklad [On the state of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population in the Russian Federation in 2013: State Report]. Moscow: Federal'naja sluzhba po nadzoru v sfere zashhity prav potrebitelej i blagopoluchija cheloveka, 2014, 191 p. (in Russian).
- O sostojanii sanitarno-jepidemiologicheskogo blagopoluchija naselenija v Rossijskoj Federacii v 2014 godu: Gosudarstvennyj doklad [On the state of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population in the Russian Federation in 2014: State Report]. Moscow: Federal'naja sluzhba po nadzoru v sfere zashhity prav potrebitelej i blagopoluchija cheloveka, 2015, 219 p. (in Russian).
- Samye bol'shie goroda mira (obn. 2016) po naseleniju… [The biggest cities in the world (2016) in terms of population…]. Sajt o stranah, gorodah, statistike naselenija i pr. Available at: http://www.statdata.ru/largest-cities_world (29.08.2016) (in Russian).
- Skvorcov A.V. Trianguljacija Delone i ejo primenenie [Delaunay triangulation and its application]. Tomsk, 2002, 128 p.
- Fokin S.G. Ocenka vozdejstvija na naselenie Moskvy zagrjaznenij atmosfernogo vozduha kancerogennymi veshhestvami [Evaluation of exposure of the Moscow population to ambient air pollution by carcinogenic substances]. Gigiena i sanitarija, 2010, no. 1, pp. 18–21 (in Russian).
- Fokin S.G. Ocenka riska zdorov'ju naselenija pri proektirovanii transportnyh potokov Moskvy [Popula-tion health risk assessment on designing the transport streams of Moscow]. Gigiena i sanitarija, 2009, no. 6, pp. 36–38 (in Russian).
- Tsinker M.Ju., Kiryanov D.A., Gorelov V.S. Metodicheskie podhody k ocenke sluchaev narushenij zdorov'ja naselenija, associirovannyh s negativnym vozdejstviem faktorov sredy obitanija, i sluchaev, predot-vrashhennyh dejstvijami Rospotrebnadzora [Methodological approaches to assessing the cases of violations of human health associated with the negative impact of environmental factors, and cases, prevented by the actions of Rospotrebnadzor]. Aktual'nye problemy bezopasnosti i ocenki riska zdorov'ju naselenija pri vozdejstvii fakto-rov sredy obitanija: mat. vseross. nauchn.-praktich. konf. s mezhdunar. uchastiem, Perm', 21–23 May 2014 g. Perm', 2014, pp. 75–80 (in Russian).
- Environmental Diseases from A to Z, Environmental Diseases from A to Z, NIH Publication No. 96-4145 US Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Second Edition, June 2007. Available at: http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/as-sets/docs_a_e/environmental_diseases_... (29.08.2016)