Substantiation of optimum fill rate of the groups according to the sanitary and hygienic conditions of preschool educational institutions and risks of violations of children's health
V.N. Rakitskiy1, O.Ju. Ustinova2,3, S.L. Valina2
1 FBSI “Federal Scientific Center of Hygiene of Rospotrebnadzor named after F.F. Erismann”, 2 Semashko St., Mytishchi, 141014, Russian Federation
2 FBSI “Federal Scientific Center for Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies”, 82 Monastyrskaya St., Perm, 614045, Russian Federation
3 FBSEI HE “Perm State National Research University”, 15 Bukireva St., Perm, 614990, Russian Federation
The increase in the number of children in groups of preschool educational institutions (PEI) of more than 22 people is accompanied by a deterioration of sanitary and hygienic state of the premises of group cells by chemical, biological and physical indicators. In the densely populated groups the content of phenol and formaldehyde in the air of playing and sleeping rooms reaches 2.2–4.6 MAC daily average, for 30 % increases the air contamination by the conditionally pathogenic flora (St. aureus), the level of noise impact during gaming sessions is up to 80 dBA. Direct dependence between the increase of morbidity of children by the allergic diseases of the respiratory organs and the skin, functional gastrointestinal disorders, acute viral and bacterial diseases and urinary tract infections with the index of fill rate of PEI groups (R 2 = 0,32–0,89; r≤0,035–0,0001) has been correlated. The risk of violations of physical development and development delay of biological maturation of children is increased by more than 1.5–2.0 times (OR = 1,51–2,17; DI = 1,1–3,01; p = 0.01–0.03 and reduce of the adaptive reserve of the cardiovascular, respiratory and autonomic nervous system and the development of functional disorders, including cognitive, increases in 1,2–10,0 times (OR = 1,2–10,11; DI = 1,11–18,81; p = 0.01–0.04). Longtime combined effects of chemical, biological and physical factors determine the formation of chronic physiological distress syndrome in children, manifesting by a change in metabolism, haematopoiesis, decreased cellular activity and humoral immune response, a violation of the intracellular mechanisms of antioxidant protection (p = 0,0001–0,017). The results of sanitaryhygienic, clinical laboratory and mathematical methods of research have established that the optimum fill rate of groups of standard PEIs of general developmental orientation should not exceed 14–16 children and the standard of playing or sleeping areas shall be not less than 4 m 2 for 1 child. When the fill rate of the group cells of PEI does not exceed 14–16 people and with the compliance of floor space, the indices of physical, cognitive development, functional state of children's life support systems are minimally determined by hygienic conditions of the internal environment of premises of PEI.
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