Occupational risks for health of the workers of the chemical complex
E.T. Valeyeva1, A.B. Bakirov1, V.A. Kaptsov2, L.K. Karimova1, Z.F. Gimayeva1, R.R.Galimova1
1 FBSI “Ufa Institute of Occupational Health and Human Ecology”, 94 Stepana Kuvykina St., Ufa, 450106, Russian Federation
2 FSUE “All-Russian Research Institute of Railway Hygiene” of Rospotrebnadzor, 1 Pakgauznoe Shosse St., Bldg. 1, Moscow, 125438, Russian Federation
The article summarizes the materials of long-term studies to assess the working conditions, state of health in workers of the chemical industry - mainly manufacturers of ethylbenzene, styrene, olefin oxides, rocket fuel. It was found that the most adverse working conditions are typical for the production of heptyl, rubber and fiberglass. The causal relationships of working conditions in the form of an increased incidence of early (pre-clinical) stages of occupational diseases, as well as major chronic non-communicable diseases, are identified. It is shown that depending on the tropism, mechanism of action and intensity of the chemical factor a clear staging of the development of pathological changes in the body is recorded. A very high degree of professional conditionality of early toxic hepatitis stages (biliary dyskinesia) in a heptyl production operator was determined, as well as initial manifestations of autonomic-sensory polyneuropathy in hands of the workers splicing rubber products, specific changes of the hand skin in glass production operators. Production-related diseases with a high degree of conditionality in certain categories of workers include diseases of the musculoskeletal system; hypertension had an average degree of conditionality. During in-depth medical examination of 2411 workers it was found that the largest number of healthy individuals were identified in the bulk manufacture of ethylbenzene – styrene (54.7 %), and olefin oxide (35,0 %) of the number of inspected workers, the least number (12 %) – in the manufacture of rubber products. The remaining workers demonstrated the pathology of various organs and systems.
Based on the results of risk assessment and professional damage to the workers’ health the chemical productions are ranked according to their degree of danger, a system of preventive measures and risk management principles has been developed. The programme implementation resulted in the positive effect of more than 2 billion rubles.
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